Enhancement of resilience to climate variability and change through agroforestry practices in smallholder farming systems in Cameroon

  • Awazi Princely NyongEmail author
  • Tchamba Martin Ngankam
  • Temgoua Lucie Felicite


The impacts of climate variability and change are being felt by various sectors of economic life, especially the agricultural sector. It is for this reason that this study sought to investigate how agro-ecological and climate-smart systems like agroforestry could contribute towards enhancing the resilience of the agricultural sector in general and smallholder farmers in particular, faced with the climate change menace in Cameroon. Household and field surveys were the main primary data collection methods. Findings showed that variability and changes in climate parameters were real, and a plethora of agroforestry practices categorized into agrosilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems were practiced by smallholder farmers. Agroforestry products and services like food, fuelwood, building materials, and erosion control were identified by smallholder farmers as contributing towards the strengthening of their resilience to climate change impacts. The major groups of agroforestry tree/shrub species integrated on smallholder farm plots were fruit trees, fuelwood trees/shrubs and trees/shrubs used as building materials. Results from Chi square statistic, Kruskal–Wallis test, and logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05) revealed that agroforestry practices especially home gardens with animals, home gardens, trees on grazing lands, and coffee-based agroforestry played a significant positive role in enhancing smallholder farmers’ resilience to the impacts of climate variability and change. The study therefore recommends that agroforestry be prioritized in national and international policy formulations owing to its ability to enhance smallholder farmers’ resilience faced with a fast changing climate.


Resilience Climate variability Climate change Agroforestry Smallholder farmers Cameroon 



This study received no funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 222 DschangUniversity of DschangDschangCameroon

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