Advertisement

Enhancement of resilience to climate variability and change through agroforestry practices in smallholder farming systems in Cameroon

  • Awazi Princely NyongEmail author
  • Tchamba Martin Ngankam
  • Temgoua Lucie Felicite
Article

Abstract

The impacts of climate variability and change are being felt by various sectors of economic life, especially the agricultural sector. It is for this reason that this study sought to investigate how agro-ecological and climate-smart systems like agroforestry could contribute towards enhancing the resilience of the agricultural sector in general and smallholder farmers in particular, faced with the climate change menace in Cameroon. Household and field surveys were the main primary data collection methods. Findings showed that variability and changes in climate parameters were real, and a plethora of agroforestry practices categorized into agrosilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems were practiced by smallholder farmers. Agroforestry products and services like food, fuelwood, building materials, and erosion control were identified by smallholder farmers as contributing towards the strengthening of their resilience to climate change impacts. The major groups of agroforestry tree/shrub species integrated on smallholder farm plots were fruit trees, fuelwood trees/shrubs and trees/shrubs used as building materials. Results from Chi square statistic, Kruskal–Wallis test, and logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05) revealed that agroforestry practices especially home gardens with animals, home gardens, trees on grazing lands, and coffee-based agroforestry played a significant positive role in enhancing smallholder farmers’ resilience to the impacts of climate variability and change. The study therefore recommends that agroforestry be prioritized in national and international policy formulations owing to its ability to enhance smallholder farmers’ resilience faced with a fast changing climate.

Keywords

Resilience Climate variability Climate change Agroforestry Smallholder farmers Cameroon 

Notes

Funding

This study received no funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Amare D, Wondie M, Mekuria W, Darr D (2018) Agroforestry of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia: practics and benefits. Small Scale For 1:1.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-018-9405-6 Google Scholar
  2. Asaah EK, Tchoundjeu Z, Leakey RRB, Takousting B, Njong J, Edang I (2011) Trees, agroforestry and multifunctional agriculture in Cameroon. Int J Agric Sustain 9:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asfaw B, Lemenih M (2012) Traditional agroforestry systems as a safe haven for woody plant species: a case study from a topo-climatic gradient in south central Ethiopia. For Trees Livelihoods 19:359–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atangana A, Khasa D, Chang S, Degrande A (2014) Tropical agroforestry. Springer, Netherlands, p 380.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7723-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Awazi NP (2018) Adaptation options enhancing farmers’ resilience to climate change. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Riga. ISBN-10: 3330027940; ISBN-13: 978-3330027947Google Scholar
  6. Awazi NP, Tchamba NM (2018) Determinants of small-scale farmers’ adaptation decision to climate variability and change in the North-West Region of Cameroon. Afr J Agric Res 13:534–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Awazi NP, Tchamba NM (2019) Enhancing agricultural sustainability and productivity under changing climate conditions through improved agroforestry practices in smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J Agric Res 14(7):379–388.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2018.12972 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Awazi NP, Tchamba NM, Tabi FO (2019) An assessment of adaptation options enhancing smallholder farmers’ resilience to climate variability and change: case of Mbengwi Central sub-Division, North-West Region of Cameroon. Afr J Agric Res 14(6):321–334.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2018.13008 Google Scholar
  9. Azibo BR, Kimengsi JN (2015) Building an indigenous agro-pastoral adaptation framework to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from the North-West Region of Cameroon. Procedia Environ Sci 29:126–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishaw B, Neufeldt H, Mowo J, Abdelkadir A, Muriuki J, Dalle G, Assefa T, Guillozet K, Kassa H, Dawson IK, Luedeling, E, Mbow C (2013) In: Davis CM, Bernart B, Dmitriev A (eds) Farmers’ strategies for adapting to and mitigating climate variability and change through agroforestry in Ethiopia and Kenya. Forestry Communications Group, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. http://international.oregonstate.edu/files/final_report_agroforestry_synthesis_paper_3_14_2013.pdf. Accessed 16 April 2014
  11. Charles RL, Munishi PKT, Nzunda EF (2013) Agroforestry as adaptation strategy under climate change in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Int J Environ Prot 3:29–38Google Scholar
  12. Charles RL, Munishi PKT, Nzunda EF (2014) Agroforestry as a resilient strategy in mitigating climate change in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Glob J Biol Agric Health Sci 3(2):11–17Google Scholar
  13. Coulibaly JY, Chiputwa B, Nakelse T, Kundhlande G (2017) Adoption of agroforestry and the impact on household food security among farmers in Malawi: a review. Agric Syst 155:52–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dagar JC, Tewari VP (2017) Agroforestry: anecdotal to modern science. Springer, Singapore.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7650-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Di Falco S, Veronesi M, Yesuf M (2011) Does adaptation to climate change provide food security? A micro-perspective from Ethiopia. Am J Agr Econ 93(3):829–846.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aar006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekpo FE, Asuquo ME (2012) Agroforestry practice as adaptation tools to climate change hazards in Itu Lga, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Glob J Hum Soc Sci Geogr Environ Geosci 12(11):26–36Google Scholar
  17. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2010a) Homestead gardens in Bangladesh. Technology for agriculture. Proven technologies for small holders. http://www.fao.org/teca/content/homestead-gardens-bangladesh.pdf. Accessed 26 Oct 2014
  18. Gbetibouo AG (2009) Understanding farmers' perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: the case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 00849. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, p 36Google Scholar
  19. Gbetibouo GA, Ringler C (2009) Mapping South African farming sector vulnerability to climate change and variability: a sub national assessment. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00885Google Scholar
  20. Gordon CR (2009) The science of climate change in Africa: impacts and adaptation, Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Discussion Paper No. 1, Imperial College London. https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/climatechange/public/pdfs/discussion_papers/Grantham_Institue_-_The_science_of_climate_change_in_Africa.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2014
  21. Gur AS, Kimengsi JN, Sunjo TE, Awambeng AE (2015) The implications of climate variability on market gardening in Santa sub-division, North West Region of Cameroon. Environ Nat Resour Res 5(2):14–23.  https://doi.org/10.5539/enrr.v5n2p14 Google Scholar
  22. Innocent NM, Bitondo D, Azibo BR (2016) Climate variability and change in the Bamenda Highlands of North Western Cameroon: perceptions, impacts and coping mechanisms. Br J Appl Sci Technol 12(5):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) Climate Change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: a report of the Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/8387_wg2TARfrontmatter1.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2014
  24. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Summary for policymakers, IPCC AR4 WGII, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-spm.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2014
  25. Kabir KH, Billah MM, Sarker MA, Miah MAM (2015) Adaptation of farming practices by smallholder farmers in response to climate change. J Agric Ext Rural Dev 7(2):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar K (2016) Multifunctional agroforestry systems in tropics region. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 15(2):365–376Google Scholar
  27. Kumar BM, Nair PKR (2012) Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems. Opportunities and challenges. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Lasco RD, Delfino RJP, Catacutan D, Simelton ES, Wilson DM (2014) Climate risk adaptation by smallholder farmers: the roles of trees and agroforestry. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lasco RD, Espaldon MLO, Habito CMD (2015) Smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change and the roles of trees and agroforestry in climate risk adaptation: evidence from Bohol, Philippines. Agrofor Syst 90(3):521–540.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-015-9874-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lin BB (2007) Agroforestry management as an adaptive strategy against potential microclimate extremes in coffee agriculture. Agric For Meteorol 144:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liyama M, Neufeldt H, Dobie P, Njenga M, Ndegwa G, Jamnadass R (2014) The potential of agroforestry in the provision of sustainable woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lott JE, Ong CK, Black CR (2009) Understorey microclimate and crop performance in a Grevillea robusta-based agroforestry system in semi-arid Kenya. Agric For Meteorol 149:1140–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mandleni B, Anim FDK (2011) Climate change awareness and decision on adaptation measures by Livestock Farmers. In: 85rd Annual conference of the Agricultural Economics Society, Warwick University. 18–20 April. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/108794/2/10Mandleni_Anim.pdf. Accessed 14 Oct 2016
  34. Mbow C, Mv Noordwijk, Prabhu R, Simons T (2014a) Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry’s contribution to Sustainable Development Goals in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mbow C, Noordwijk M, Luedeling E, Neufeldt H, Minang PA, Kowero G (2014b) Agroforestry solutions to address food security and climate change challenges in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mbow C, Smith P, Skole D, Duguma L, Bustamante M (2014c) Achieving mitigation and adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005) Summary for decision makers. In: Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp 1–24Google Scholar
  38. Mkonda M, He X (2017) The potentials of agroforestry systems in East Africa: a case of the eastern arc mountains of Tanzania. Int J Plant Soil Sci 14(3):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2017/31299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Molua EL (2005) The economics of tropical agroforestry systems: the case of agroforestry farms in Cameroon. For Policy Econ 7(2):199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Montagnini F (2017) Integrating landscapes: agroforestry for biodiversity conservation and food sovereignty. Springer, p 494Google Scholar
  41. Munjeb NL, Yerima BPK, Avana TML (2018) Farmer’s perception of soil and watershed degradation and the assessment of soil nutrients status under agroforestry systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: case of Ako sub division. J Soil Sci Environ Manag 9(8):119–126.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JSSEM2018.0684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nair PKR, Garrity D (2012) Agroforestry—the future of global land use, Advances in agroforestry, series, vol 9, 1st edn. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4676-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nair PKR, Rao MR, Buck LE (2004) New vistas in agroforestry: a compendium for 1st world congress of agroforestry, Advances in agroforestry series, vol 1, 1st edn. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2424-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Negawo JW, Beyene DN (2017) The role of coffee based agroforestry system in tree diversity conservation in eastern Uganda. J Landsc Ecol 10(2):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Newaj R, Chavan SB, Prasad R (2015) Climate-smart agriculture with special reference to agroforestry. Indian J Agrofor 17(1):96–108Google Scholar
  46. Newaj R, Chaturvedi OP, Handa AK (2016) Recent development in agroforestry research and its role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Indian J Agrofor 18(1):1–9Google Scholar
  47. Nguyen Q, Hoang MH, Öborn I, Noordwijk M (2013) Multipurpose agroforestry as a climate change resiliency option for farmers: an example of local adaptation in Vietnam. Clim Change 117:241–257.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0550-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Njongue YN, Avana TML, Fotsing E, Muderhwa PM (2017) Assessing farmers’ interest in Agroforestry practices around the Mount Cameroon National park (MCNP) in Cameroon. Int J Geomat Plan Resour Manag (2)Google Scholar
  49. Noordwijk M, Hoang MH, Neufeldt H, Öborn I, Yatich T (2011) How trees and people can co-adapt to climate change: reducing vulnerability through multifunctional agroforestry landscapes. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  50. Nsabimana D, Klemedtson L, Kaplin DA, Wallin G (2008) Soil carbon and nutrient accumulation under forest plantations in southern Rwanda. Afr J Sci Technol 2:142–149Google Scholar
  51. Pandey DN (2007) Multifunctional agroforestry systems in India. Curr Sci 92(4):455–463Google Scholar
  52. Raintree JB, Warner K (1986) Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation. Agrofor Syst 4(1):39–54.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01834701 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rao KPC, Ndegwa WG, Kizito K, Oyoo A (2011) Climate variability and change: farmer perceptions and understanding of intra-seasonal variability in rainfall and associated risk in semi-arid Kenya. Exp Agric 47:267–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rao KPC, Verchot LV, Laarman J (2007) Adaptation to climate change through sustainable management and development of agroforestry systems. SAT eJournal 4(1):1–30Google Scholar
  55. Snelder DJ, Lasco RD (2008) Smallholder tree growing for rural development and environmental services: lessons from Asia, Advances in agroforestry, series, vol 5, 1st edn. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8261-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sobola OO, Amadi DC, Jamala GY (2015) The role of agroforestry in environmental sustainability. IOSR J Agric Vet Sci 8(5):20–25Google Scholar
  57. Syampungani S, Chirwa PW, Akinnifesi FK, Ajayi OC (2010) The potential of using agroforestry as a win–win solution to climate change mitigation and adaptation and meeting food security challenges in Southern Africa. Agric J 5(2):80–88Google Scholar
  58. Tabi FO, Adiku SGK, Kwadwo O, Nhamo N, Omoko M, Atika E, Mayebi A (2012) Perceptions of rain-fed lowland rice farmers on climate change, their vulnerability, and adaptation strategies in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technol Innov Dev.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-2-8178-0268-8_12 Google Scholar
  59. Thorlakson T, Neufeldt H (2012) Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya. Agric Food Secur 1:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Toppo P, Raj A (2018) Role of agroforestry in climate change mitigation. J Pharm Phytochem 7(2):241–243Google Scholar
  61. Vaast P, Somarriba E (2014) Trade-offs between crop intensification and ecosystem services: the role of agroforestry in cocoa cultivation. Agroforest Syst 88:947–956.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-014-9762-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Verchot LV, Noordwijk MV, Kandji S, Tomich T, Ong C, Albrecht A, Mackensen J, Bantilan C, Anupama KV, Palm C (2006) Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-007-9105-6 Google Scholar
  63. Viswanath S, Lubina PA, Subbanna S, Sandhya MC (2018) Traditional agroforestry systems and practices: a review. Adv Agric Res Technol J 2(1):18–29Google Scholar
  64. World Bank (2013) Turn down the heat: climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience. A report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. World Bank, Washington, D.C.. License: Creative Commons Attribution—Non Commercial–No Derivatives 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0). http://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/Full_Report_Vol_2_Turn_Down_The_Heat_%20Climate_Extremes_Regional_Impacts_Case_for_Resilience_Print%20version_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 03 Sep 2017
  65. Zomer RJ, Trabucco A, Coe R, Place F (2009) Trees on farm: analysis of global extent and geographical patterns of agroforestry. ICRAF Working Paper No. 89. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre. http://worldagroforestry.org/sites/default/files/WP89_text_only.pdf. Accessed 09 Jan 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 222 DschangUniversity of DschangDschangCameroon

Personalised recommendations