Pawpaw leaf and seed meals composite mix dietary supplementation: effects on broiler chicken’s performance, caecum microflora and blood analysis

  • Olugbenga D. OloruntolaEmail author
  • Simeon O. Ayodele
  • Samuel A. Adeyeye
  • Abubakar O. Jimoh
  • Deborah A. Oloruntola
  • Idowu S. Omoniyi


Effects of pawpaw leaf and seed meals composite mix (PCM) supplementation on broiler chickens were assessed. A total of 396-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were distributed to six diets: 1 = 0 g/kg PCM; 2 = 2 g/kg PCM; 3 = 4 g/kg PCM; 4 = 6 g/kg PCM; 5 = 8 g/kg PCM; and 6 = 10 g/kg PCM. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds fed diet 5 was similar to those fed diets 4 and 6 but better than (P < 0.05) those fed diets 1, 2 and 3 at grower phase and overall period of the feeding trial. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration decreased in the birds with an increase in the dietary PCM supplementation level such that ALT concentration reduction (P < 0.05) was recorded in the birds fed diets 5 and 6 when compared to those fed diet 1. The serum cholesterol in birds fed diets 3, 4, 5 and 6 was similar to the level recorded for birds fed diet 2 but lower (P < 0.05) than the level in birds fed the control diet. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum concentration improved (P < 0.05) in the birds fed PCM-supplemented diets (2 to 6) compared to those fed diet 1. Catalase serum concentration in birds fed diet 5 was similar to those fed diets 3, 4 and 6 but higher (P < 0.05) than the concentration in birds fed diets 1 and 2. The PCM dietary supplementations (6 g/kg to 10 g/kg) did not affect on the performance and health status of the broiler chickens negatively.


Antioxidant Caeca microbes Chickens Performance Phytogenics Serum biochemical 



Pawpaw leaf and seed meals composite mix


Alanine aminotransferase


Aspartate aminotransferase


Superoxide dismutase


Glutathione peroxidase




Pawpaw leaf meal


Pawpaw seed meal


National Research Council


Association of Analytical Chemists


Body weight


Feed intake


Body weight gain


Food conversion ratio


Statistical Package for Social Science


Authors’ contributions

ODO, SOA, SAA and DAO designed the study. ODO, SOA, SAA, AOJ and JOA managed all activities of the experiment collectively. DAO collected and analysed blood samples and caecal content. ODO, SOA, SAA, AOJ and ISO collected the birds’ performance data. ODO, SOA and DAO analysed the data and interpreted the data. All authors gathered referenced materials. ODO, SOA and DAO prepared the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed the first draft of the manuscript and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All animal experimental protocols were approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of Agricultural Technology Department, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Science DepartmentAdekunle Ajasin UniversityAkungba AkokoNigeria
  2. 2.Animal Production Unit, Agricultural Technology DepartmentThe Federal PolytechnicAdo EkitiNigeria
  3. 3.Animal Health, and Production DepartmentFederal College of AgricultureAkureNigeria
  4. 4.Microbiology DepartmentThe Federal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria

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