Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Giant leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata): a versatile tree-legume for sustainable agroforestry

Abstract

Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is one of the 22 Leucaena species that originated in Central America. There are two major subspecies of leucaena, L. leucocephala subsp. glabrata (giant leucaena) and L. leucocephala subsp. leucocephala (common leucaena). Giant leucaena is a medium size fast-growing tree important for agroforestry while common leucaena is a small bushy shrub that is considered to be an invasive weed. Giant leucaena can be grown as a woody tree of up to ~ 20 m in height or maintained as a bushy fodder legume by repeated harvest of its foliage several times a year. Giant leucaena grown for fodder can produce forage dry mater yield of up to 34 Mg ha−1 year−1. High forage yield together with high protein content makes leucaena an ideal fodder legume for the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although mimosine present in the leucaena foliage has toxicity, it should not be a big concern because ruminants can be successfully inoculated with the mimosine-metabolizing rumen bacterium Synergistis jonesii. Alternatively, mimosine present in the leucaena foliage can be removed easily and inexpensively through simple processing. Giant leucaena cultivars are generally free from diseases and are highly tolerant to drought. Although infestation by psyllids may be a problem, a number of psyllid-resistant cultivars of giant leucaena have been developed through interspecies hybridization. The wood of giant leucaena can be used for timber, paper pulp, or biofuel production. Leucaena foliage and wood may serve as raw materials for development of new industry for production of phytochemicals such as mimosine, tannins and anthocyanins, wood products, and high-protein animal feed for farm animals in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Adanikin BA, Kayode J (2019) The effects of nitrogen fixing tree (Leucaena leucocephala) and mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium) on spent engine oil polluted soil. Pollution 5:33–40

  2. Ademola IO, Idowu SO (2013) Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala seed extract on Haemonchus contortus-infective larvae. Vet Rec 158:485–486

  3. Ahmed AMM, Avilés LR, Sánchez FJS, Al-Zyoud FA, Barros-Rodriguez M (2014) An overview on some biotic and abiotic factors affecting the population dynamics of leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla Cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae): contributory factors for pest management. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 17:437–446

  4. Allison MJ, Mayberry WR, Mcweeney CS, Stahl DA (1992) Synergistes jonesii, gen. nov., sp. nov.: a rumen bacterium that degrades toxic pyridinediols. Syst Appl Microbiol 15:522–529

  5. Amisah S, Oteng MA, Ofori JK (2009) Growth performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed varying inclusion levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal. J Appl Environ Manag 13:21–26

  6. Anitha R, Jayavelu S, Murugesan K (2005) Antidermatophytic and bacterial activity of mimosine. Phytother Res 19:992–993

  7. Atta-Krah AN (1990) Alley farming with Leucaena: effect of short grazed fallows on soil fertility and crop yields. Exp Agric 26:1–10

  8. Auamcharoen W, Chandrapatya A (2015) Acaricidal and ovicidal efficacies of Leucaena glauca Benth. seed crude extracts on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Biopestic 8:68–81

  9. Austin MT, Sorensson CT, Brewbaker JL, Sun W, Shelton HM (1995) Forage dry matter yields and psyllid resistance of thirty-one leucaena selections in Hawaii. Agrofor Syst 31:211–222

  10. Austin MT, Early RJ, Brewbaker JL, Sun W (1997) Yield, psyllid resistance and phenolic concentration of leucaena in two environments in Hawaii. Agron J 89:507–515

  11. Awaya JD, Fox PM, Borthakur D (2005) pyd genes of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 are required for degradation of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, an aromatic intermediate in mimosine metabolism. J Bact 187:4480–4487

  12. Awaya JD, Walton C, Borthakur D (2007) The pydA-pydB gene produces an active dioxygenase-hydrolase that degrades 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, an intermediate of mimosine metabolism. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75:583–588

  13. Bisht SS, Mishra R, Praveen B, Panda AK, Panda KK, Routray A (2011) Phytoremediation studies on coal mine waste and coal fly ash by Leucaena leucocephala. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinform 1:252–255

  14. Borthakur D, Gao X (1996) A 150-Mda plasmid in Rhizobium etli strain TAL182 contains genes for nodulation competitiveness on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Can J Microbiol 42:903–910

  15. Borthakur D, Soedarjo FP, Webb DT (2003) The mid genes of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 are required for degradation of mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone and are inducible by mimosine. Microbiology 149:537–546

  16. Brewbaker JL (1975) Registration of Hawaiian Giant K8 Leucaena. Crop Sci 5:885–886

  17. Brewbaker JL (1987) Leucaena: a multipurpose tree genus for tropical agroforestry. In: Steppler HA, Nair PKR (eds) Agroforestry: a decade of development. International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, pp 289–324

  18. Brewbaker JL (2008) Registration of ‘KX2-Hawaii’, interspecific-hybrid Leucaena. J Plant Regist 2:190–193

  19. Brewbaker JL (2010) Leucaena is not Koa Haole. Hawaii For J 5:5–8

  20. Brewbaker JL (2013) ‘KX4-Hawaii’, seedless interspecific hybrid Leucaena. HortScience 48:1–2

  21. Brewbaker JL (2016) Breeding Leucaena: tropical multipurpose Leguminous tree. Plant Breed Rev 40:43–121

  22. Brewbaker JL, Hylin JW (1965) Variations in mimosine content among Leucaena species and related Mimosaceae. Crop Sci 5:348–349

  23. Brewbaker JL, Pluckett D, Gonzalez V (1972) Varietal variation and yield trials of Leucaena leucocephala (Koa haole) in Hawaii. Hawaii Agric Exp Stn Bull 166:3–29

  24. Casanova-Lugo F, Solorio F, Ramirez-Aviles L, Caamal-Maldonado JA, Ku-Vera JC (2014) Forage yield and quality of Leucaena leucocephala and Guazuma ulmifolia in tropical silvopastoral systems. Trop Grassl Forrajes Trop. https://doi.org/10.17138/tgft(2)24-26

  25. Celestino AP (1985) Ipil–Ipil hedgerows for soil erosion control in hillylands. Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Baños

  26. Chanchay N, Poosaran N (2009) The reduction of mimosine and tannin contents in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Asian J Food Agro-Ind 2:S137–S144

  27. Cheung KC, Wong JPK, Zhang ZQ, Wong JWC, Wong MH (2000) Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala. Environ Pollut 109:75–82

  28. Cronk QCB, Fuller JL (1995) Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, London

  29. Dalland A, Våje PI, Matthews RB, Singh BR (1993) The potential of alley cropping in improvement of cultivation systems in the high rainfall areas of Zambia. III. Effects on soil chemical and physical properties. Agrofor Syst 2:117–132

  30. Dalzell SA, Shelton HM, Mullen BF, Lauren PH, McLaughlin KG (2007) Leucaena: a guide to establishment and management. Meat and Livestock Australia Ltd, Sydney. ISBN 1 7419 1013 7

  31. Dias LE, Melo RF, de Mello JWV, Oliveira JA, Daniels WL (2010) Growth of seedlings of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (l.) millsp), wand riverhemp (Sesbania virgata (cav.) pers.), and lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit) in an arsenic-contaminated soil. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 34:975–983

  32. Dijkman MJ (1950) Leucaena: a promising soil-erosion-control plant. Econ Bot 4:337–349

  33. Dwivedi UN, Gupta P, Pandey VP, Singh S, Singh R (2014) Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Leucaena leucocephala: cloning, expression, characterization and molecular docking analyses. J Mol Catal B Enzym 106:63–70

  34. Edwin-Wosu NL, Nkang A (2016) Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Heyne Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit. and Crotolaria retusa Linn for waste oil contaminated soils. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 20:669–678

  35. Ezenwa IV, Atta-Krah AN (1992) Early growth and nodulation in Leucaena and Gliricidia and the effects of pruning on biomass productivity. In: Mulongoy K, Gueye M, Spencer DSC (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation and sustainability of tropical agriculture. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, pp 171–178

  36. Fox PM, Borthakur D (2001) Selection of several classes of mimosine-degradation-defective Tn3Hogus-insertion mutants of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 on the basis of mimosine-inducible GUS activity. Can J Microbiol 47:488–494

  37. Funasaki GY, Lai P-Y, Nakahara LM (1989) Status of natural enemies of Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Hawaii. In: Napompeth B, MacDicken KG (eds) Leucaena psyllid: problems and management. Proceedings of an international workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, Winrock Intl, and NFTA, Hawaii, pp 153–158

  38. Garcia GW, Ferguson TU, Neckles FA, Archibald KAE (1996) The nutritive value and forage productivity of Leucaena leucocephala. Anim Feed Sci Technol 60:29–41

  39. Gayathri NS, Jayanthi V (2016) Evaluating the growth potential of Vigna radiate (green gram) using Albizia amara and Leucaena leucocephala as a phytoremediator for textile dye (Navy blue dye) simulated soil. J Plant Stress Physiol 2:31–35

  40. George MLC, Young JPW, Borthakur D (1994) Genetic characterization of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 that nodulates tree legumes. Can J Microbiol 40:208–215

  41. Grewal SS, Juneja ML, Singh K, Singh S (1994) A comparison of two agroforestry systems for soil, water and nutrient conservation on degraded land. Soil Technol 7:145–153

  42. Guevara AB, Whitney AS, Thompson JR (1978) Influence of intra-row spacing and cutting regimes on the growth and yield of Leucaena. Agron J 70:1033–1037

  43. Gupta SK (2008) Isolation, cloning and characterization of lignin biosynthesis pathway gene (s) 4-coumarate Co A ligase (4CL) from Leucaena leucocephala. Doctoral dissertation, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India

  44. Gupta M, Kumar A, Yunus M (2000) Effect of fly-ash on metal composition and physiological responses in Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk.) de. Wit. Environ Monit Assess 61:399–406

  45. Heinemana AM, Otienob HJO, Mengichb EK, Amadaloc BA (1997) Growth and yield of eight agroforestry tree species in line plantings in Western Kenya and their effect on maize yields and soil properties. For Ecol Manag 91:103–135

  46. Ho C, Hseu Z, Chen N, Tsai C (2013) Evaluating heavy metal concentration of plants on a serpentine site for phytoremediation applications. Environ Earth Sci 70:191–199

  47. Honda MDH, Borthakur D (2019) Highly expressed genes in the foliage of giant leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata), a nutritious fodder legume in the tropics. Plant Biosyst (in press)

  48. Honda MDH, Ishihara KL, Pham DT, Borthakur D (2018) Identification of drought-induced genes in giant leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata). Trees 32:571–585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-018-1657-4

  49. Hughes CE (1998a) Monograph of Leucaena (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Syst Bot Monogr 55:120

  50. Hughes CE (1998b) Leucaena. A genetic resources handbook. Tropical forestry paper 37. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, Oxford, UK

  51. Hughes CE (2006) Leucaena leucocephala. In: Invasive species specialist group (ISSG) (eds) Global invasive species database. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=23&fr=1&sts=sss&lang=EN. Accessed Jan 2019

  52. Hughes CE, Johnson CD (1996) New host records and notes on Bruchidae (Coleoptera) of Leucaena (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) from Mexico, Central and South America. J Appl Entomol 120:137–141

  53. Hughes CE, Sorensson CT, Bray R, Brewbaker JL (1995) Leucaena germplasm collections, genetic conservation and seed increase. In: Shelton HM, Piggin CM, Brewbaker JL (eds) Leucaena: opportunities and limitations, vol 57. ACIAR, Canberra, pp 66–74

  54. Iqbal MZ, Shazia Y (2004) Differential Tolerance of Albizia Lebbeck and Leucaena Leucocephala at toxic levels of lead and cadmium. Pol J of Environ Stud 4:439–442

  55. Isaac L, Wood CW, Shannon DA (2003) Pruning management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen in contour-hedgerow cropping with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit on sloping land in Haiti. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 65:256–263

  56. Ishihara KL, Honda MDH, Pham DT, Borthakur D (2016) Transcriptome analysis of Leucaena leucocephala and identification of highly expressed genes in roots and shoots. Transcriptomics 4:135

  57. Jama B, Getahun A, Ngugi DN (1991) Shading effects of alley cropped Leucaena leucocephala on weed biomass and maize yield at Mtwapa, Coast Province, Kenya. Agrofor Syst 13:1–11

  58. Jayanthy V, Geetha R, Rajendran R, Prabhavathi P, Karthik Sundaram S, Dinesh Kumar S, Santhanam P (2014) Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil. Saudi J Biol Sci 4:324–333

  59. Jones RJ (1979) The value of Leucaena leucocephala as a feed for ruminants in the tropics. World Anim Rev 31:13–23

  60. Jones RJ, Jones RM (1996) Thickening up of Leucaena stands in Australia: a caution. Leucnet News 3:19–20

  61. Jones RJ, Megarrity RG (1986) Successful transfer of DHP-degrading bacteria from Hawaiian goats to Australian ruminants to overcome the toxicity of Leucaena. Aust Vet J 63:259–262

  62. Jones RJ, Palmer B (2002) Assessment of the condensed tannin concentration in a collection of Leucaena species using 14C-labelled polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000). Trop Grassl 36:47–53

  63. Jube SL, Borthakur D (2010) Transgenic Leucaena leucocephala expressing the Rhizobium gene pydA encoding a meta-cleavage dioxygenase shows reduced mimosine content. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:273–278

  64. Kabore A, Traore A, Nignan M, Gnanda IB, Bamogo V, Tamboura HH, Bele GAM (2012) In vitro anthelmintic activity of Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit. (Mimosaceae) and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud (Fabaceae) leave extracts on Haemonchus contortus ova and larvae. J Chem Pharm Res 4:303–309

  65. Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, Isirimah NO (1995) Dynamics of nodulation, nitrogen fixation, nitrogen use and biomass yield over time in pot-grown Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Biol Fertil Soils 20:163–168

  66. Kaitho RJ, Umunna NN, Nsahlai IV, Tamminga S, van Bruchem J, Hanson J, van de Wouw M (1996) Palatability of multipurpose tree species: effect of species and length of study on intake and relative palatability by sheep. Agrofor Syst 33:249–261

  67. Kaomek M, Mizuno K, Fujimura T, Sriyotha P, Cairns JRK (2003) Cloning, expression, and characterization of an antifungal chitinase from Leucaena leucocephala de Wit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:667–676

  68. Karthikeyan S, Rajendran AB (2010) Adsorption of basic dye (rhodamine B) by a low cost activated carbon from agricultural solid waste: Leucaena leucocephala seed shell waste. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 9:461–472

  69. Khan MKA, Akbar MA, Khaleduzzaman ABM, Rahman MM (2009) Utilization of Leucaena and Sesbania leaf meals as protein supplements in broiler ration. Bangladesh J Anim Sci 38:123–131

  70. Khan BM, Rawal SK, Arha M, Gupta SK, Srivastava S, Shaik NM, Yadav AK, Kulkarni PS, Abhilash OU, Kumar S, Omer S, Vishwakarma RK, Singh S, Kumar RJS, Sonawane P, Patel P, Kannan C, Abbassi S (2012) Genetic engineering of phenylpropanoid pathway in Leucaena leucocephala. In: Barrera-Saldaña HA (ed) Genetic engineering: basics, new applications and responsibilities. InTechOpen, Rijeka, pp 93–120. ISBN 978-953-307-790-1

  71. Kumar BM, Kumar SS, Fisher RF (1998) Intercropping teak with Leucaena increases tree growth and modifies soil characteristics. Agrofor Syst 42:81–89

  72. Kumar S, Omer S, Patel K, Khan BM (2013) Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree. Mol Biol Rep 40:1265–1274

  73. Lambrides C (2017) Conserving Leucaena ssp. Germplasm collection. B.NBP.0696 final report published by Meat and Livestock Australia Limited, North Sydney NSW 2059, 30 Apr 2017

  74. Martínez-Romero E, Segovia L, Mercante FM, Franco AA, Graham P et al (1991) Rhizobium tropici, a novel species nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans and Leucaena sp. trees. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:417–426

  75. Moawad H, Bohlool BB (1984) Competition among Rhizobium spp. for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:5–9

  76. Mugendi DN, Nair PKR, Mugwe JN, O’Neil MK, Woomer PL (1999) Alley cropping of maize with calliandra and leucaena in the sub-humid highlands of Kenya part 1. Soil-fertility changes and maize yield. Agrofor Syst 46:39–50

  77. Mullen BF, Gutteridge RC (2002) Wood biomass production of Leucaena in subtropical Australia. Agrofor Syst 55:195–205

  78. Mullen BF, Gabunada F, Shelton HM, Stür WW (2003) Psyllid resistance in Leucaena. Part 1: genetic resistance in subtropical Australia and humid-tropical Philippines. Agrofor Syst 58:149–161

  79. Mureithi JG, Tayler RS, Thorpe W (1994) The effects of alley cropping withLeucaena leucocephala and of different management practices on the productivity of maize and soil chemical properties in lowland coastal Kenya. Agrofor Syst 27:31–51

  80. Negi VS, Borthakur D (2016) Heterologous expression and characterization of mimosinase from Leucaena leucocephala. Methods Mol Biol 1405:59–77

  81. Negi VS, Pal A, Singh R, Borthakur D (2011) Identification of species-specific genes from Leucaena leucocephala using interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. Ann Appl Biol 159:387–398

  82. Negi VS, Bingham J-P, Li QX, Borthakur D (2013) midD-encoded ‘rhizomimosinase’ from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C–N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia. Amino Acids 44:1537–1547

  83. Negi VS, Bingham J-P, Li QX, Borthakur D (2014) A carbon-nitrogen lyase from Leucaena leucocephala catalyzes the first step of mimosine degradation. Plant Physiol 164:922–934

  84. Neser S. Kluge RL (1986) The importance of seed-attacking agents in the biological control of invasive alien plants. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Farrar AA (eds) The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa. Proceedings of the national synthesis symposium, ecology of biological invasions. Oxford University Press, S. Africa, pp 285–293

  85. Nguyen BCQ, Chompoo J, Tawata S (2015) Insecticidal and nematicidal activities of novel mimosine derivatives. Molecules 20:16741–16756

  86. Omer S, Kumar S, Khan BM (2013) Over-expression of a subgroup 4 R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala reduces lignin content in transgenic tobacco. Plant Cell Rep 32:161–171

  87. Osborne NJT, McNeill DM (2001) Characterization of Leucaena condensed tannins by size and protein precipitation capacity. J Sci Food Agric 81:1113–1119

  88. Othman AB, Prine GM (1984) Biomass and energy productivity under humid subtropical conditions. Leucaena Res Rep 5:84–85

  89. Pagadala NS, Arha M, Reddy PS, Kumar R, Sirisha VL, Prashant S, Janardhan K, Khan B, Rawal SK, Kavi PK (2009) Phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling, molecular dynamics and docking studies of caffeoyl-CoA-O-methyl transferase (CCoAOMT 1 and 2) isoforms isolated from subabul (Leucaena leucocephala). J Mol Model 15:203–221

  90. Pal A, Borthakur D (2014) Tissue-specific differential expression of two β-carbonic anhydrases in Leucaena leucocephala under abiotic stress conditions. J Appl Biotechnol 2:43

  91. Pan FI, Brewbaker JL (1988) Cytological studies in the genus Leucaena Benth. Cytologia 53:393–399

  92. Pandey VP, Dwivedi UN (2011) Purification and characterization of peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. J Mol Catal B Enzym 68:168–173

  93. Pandey VC, Kumar A (2013) Leucaena leucocephala: an underutilized plant for pulp and paper production. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60:1165–1171

  94. Pandey B, Pandey VP, Dwivedi UN (2011) Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. Protein Expr Purif 79:197–203

  95. Parera V (1982) Leucaena for erosion control and green manure in Sikka. In: Proceedings of a workshop: Leucaena research in the Asian Pacific Region 1982. IDRC, Singapore and Ottowa, Canada, 23–26 Nov

  96. Prasad MNV, Subhashini P (1994) Mimosine-inhibited seed germination; seedling growth and enzymes of Oryza sativa L. J Chem Ecol 20:1689–1696

  97. Prasad JVNS, Korwar GR, Rao KV, Mandal UK, Rao GR, Srinivas I, Venketeswarlu B, Rao SN, Kulkarni HD (2011) Optimum stand density of Leucaena leucocephala for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Biomass Bioenergy 35:227–235

  98. Radrizzani A, Shelton M, Dalzell SA, Kirchhof G (2011) Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under Leucaena leucocephala pastures in Queensland. Crop Pasture Sci 64:337–345

  99. Rajendran AB, Manivannan G, Jothivenkatachalam K, Karthikeyan S (2015) Characterization studies of activated carbon from low cost agricultural waste: Leucaena leucocephala seed shell. Rasayan J Chem 8:330–338

  100. Rao PB, Kaur A, Tewari A (2008) Drought resistance in seedlings of five important tree species in Tarai region of Uttarakhand. Int J Trop Ecol 49:43–52

  101. Rengsirikul K, Kanjanakuha A, Ishii Y, Kangvansaichol K, Sripichitt P, Punsuvon V, Vaithanomsat P, Nakamanee G, Tudsri S (2011) Potential forage and biomass production of newly introduced varieties of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) in Thailand. Grassl Sci 57:94–100

  102. Rosecrance RC, Brewbaker JL, Fownes JH (1992) Alley cropping of maize with nine leguminous trees. Agrofor Syst 17:159–168

  103. Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P (1999) Chromium, nickel and zinc tolerance in Leucaena leucocephalla (K8). Silvae Genet 48:151–157

  104. Sakthivel V, Vivekanandan M (2009) Reclamation of tannery polluted soil through phytoremediation. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 12:61–66

  105. Sanginga N, Zapata F, Danso SKA, Bowen GD (1989) Effect of successive cutting on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of Leucaena leucocephala using 15 N dilution and the difference methods. In: Proceedings of the eleventh international plant nutrition colloquium, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 30 July–4 Aug 1989

  106. Savale SR, Sanglikar RV, Sthool VA, Kadam JR (2007) Effect of Leucaena leucocephala barriers and bund on erosion losses and yield of pearlmillet + mothbean. Asian J Soil Sci 2:142–145

  107. Shafiq M, Iqbal MZ, Athar M (2008) Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 12(2):61–66

  108. Shaik NM, Misra A, Singh S, Fatangare AB, Ramakumar S, Rawal SK, Khan BM (2013) Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of β-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul). Mol Biol Rep 40:1351–1363

  109. Shelton HM, Brewbaker JL (1994) Leucaena leucocephala: the most widely used forage tree legume. In: Gutteridge RC, Shelton HM (eds) Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB Intl, London, pp 15–29

  110. Shelton HM, Dalzell S (2007) Production, economic and environmental benefits of leucaena pastures. Trop Grassl Forrajes Trop 41:174–190

  111. Soedarjo M, Borthakur D (1996a) Mimosine produced by the tree-legume Leucaena provides growth advantages to some Rhizobium strains that utilize it as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Plant Soil 186:87–92

  112. Soedarjo M, Borthakur D (1996b) Simple procedures to remove mimosine from young leaves, pods and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala used as food. Int J Food Sci Technol 31:97–103

  113. Soedarjo M, Borthakur D (1998) Mimosine, a toxin produced by the tree-legume Leucaena provides a nodulation competition advantage to mimosine-degrading Rhizobium strains. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1605–1613

  114. Soedarjo M, Hemscheidt TK, Borthakur D (1994) Mimosine, a toxin present in the tree legume Leucaena, induces a mimosine-degrading enzyme activity in some strains of Rhizobium. Appl Env Microbiol 60:4268–4272

  115. Somasegaran PS, Martin RB (1986) Symbiotic characteristics and Rhizobium requirements of a Leucaena leucocephala × Leucaena diversifolia hybrid and its parental genotypes. Appl Environ Microbiol 52:1422–1424

  116. Song S, Wu H, Zhou X (2005) Field Experiment of Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) dewit. growth on the Sn–Zn tailing ponds in Dachang mining area. Min Res Dev 25(73–75):78

  117. Sorensson CT, Brewbaker JL (1984) Newly introduced psyllid in Hawaii injurious to Leucaena. Leucaena Res Rep 5:91–93

  118. Srivastava S, Gupta RK, Arha M, Vishwakarma RK, Rawal SK, Kishor PK, Khan BM (2011) Expression analysis of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding tree species. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:138–145

  119. Ssenku JE, Ntale M, Backeus I, Oryem-Origa H (2017) Phytoremediation potential of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. for heavy metal-polluted and heavy metal-degraded environments. In: Bauddh K, Singh B, Korstad J (eds) Phytoremediation potential of bioenergy plants. Springer, Singapore, pp 189–209

  120. Sun WG (1996) Genetic improvement of Leucaena and Acacia koa. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI

  121. Swaminathan MS (1987) The promise of agroforestry for ecological and nutritional security. In: Steppler HA, Nair PKR (eds) Agroforestry: a decade of development. Lnternational Council for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, pp 25–42

  122. Tangendjaja B, Lowry JB, Wills RBH (1986) Changes in mimosine, phenol, protein and fibre content of Leucaena leucocephala leaf during growth and development. Aust J Exp Agric 26:315–317

  123. Tawata S, Fukuta M, Xuan TD, Deba F (2008) Total utilization of tropical plants Leucaena leucocephala and Alpinia zerumbet. J Pestic Sci 33:40–43

  124. Trinick MJ (1968) Nodulation of tropical legumes: I. Specificity in the Rhizobium symbiosis of leucaena leucocephala. Exp Agric 4:243–253

  125. Varvikko T, Khalili H, Crosse S (1992) Supplementation of native grass hay with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) hay, wilted leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) forage, wilted tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis) forage or wheat middling for young Friesian Zebu (Boran) crossbred steers. Agric Sci Finl 1:247–254

  126. Vishwakarma RK, Srivastava S, Singh S, Khan BM (2012) Molecular cloning and characterization of two differentially expressed cellulose synthase gene isoforms in Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding tree species. Adv Biosci Biotechnol 3:92–100

  127. Walton CS (2003) Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in Queensland. Pest status review series: land protection. Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane

  128. Wheeler RA, Brewbaker JL (1988) Leucaena research for Hawaiian forest and rangeland applications. Trans West Sect Wildl Soc 24:94–97

  129. Wheeler RA, Norton BW, Shelton HM (1995) Condensed tannins in Leucaena species and hybrids and implications for nutritive value. In: Shelton HM, Piggin CM, Brewbaker JL (eds) Leucaena: opportunities and limitations. ACIAR, Canberra, pp 112–118

  130. Williams RD, Hoagland RE (2007) Phytotoxicity of mimosine and albizziine on seed germination and seedling growth of crops and weeds. Allelopathy J 19:423–430

  131. Xu ZH, Myers RJK, Saffigna PG, Chapman AL (1993a) Nitrogen fertilizer in leucaena alley cropping. II: residual value of nitrogen fertilizer and leucaena residues. Fertil Res 34:1–8

  132. Xu ZH, Myers RJK, Saffigna PG, Chapman AL (1993b) Nitrogen cycling in leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) alley cropping in semi-arid tropics II. Response of maize growth to addition of nitrogen fertilizer and plant residues. Plant Soil 1:73–82

  133. Xuan TD, Elzaawely AA, Deba F, Fukuta M, Tawata S (2006) Mimosine in Leucaena as a potent bio-herbicide. Agron Sustain Dev 26:89–97

  134. Xuan TD, Tawata S, Khanh TD (2013) Herbicidal activity of mimosine and its derivatives. In: Price AJ, Kelton JA (eds) Herbicides-advances in research, agricultural and biological sciences, chapter 15. Intech, Rijeka, pp 299–312

  135. Xuan TD, Minh TN, Khanh TD (2016) Isolation and biological activities of 3-hydroxy-4 1H.-pyridone. J Plant Interact 11:94–100

  136. Yadav AK (2009) Molecular studies of Lignin metabolism in Leucaena leucocephala. Doctoral dissertation, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India

  137. Yafuso JT, Negi VS, Bingham JP, Borthakur D (2014) An O-Acetylserine (thiol) Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:1157–1168

  138. Yige C, Chen F, Liu L, Zhu S (2012) Physiological responses of Leucaena leucocephala seedlings to drought stress. Procedia Eng 28:110–116

  139. Yirgu A, Gezahgne A, Tsega M (2015) First report of Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit in Ethiopia and a preliminary investigation into its impacts. Afr Entomol 23:280–285

  140. Youkhana AH, Idol TW (2011) Growth, yield and value of managed coffee agroecosystem in Hawaii. Pac Agric Nat Resour 2:12–19

  141. Zakayo G, Krebs GL, Mullan BP (2000) The use of Leucaena leucacephala leaf meal as a protein supplement for pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 13:1309–1315

  142. Zarate PS (1984) Taxonomic revision of the genus Leucaena from Mexico. Bull Int Group Study Mimosoideae 12:24–34

  143. Zárate S (1999) Ethnobotany and domestication process of Leucaena in Mexico. J Ethnobiol 19:1–23

  144. Zarin MA, Wan HY, Isha A, Armania N (2016) Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of condensed tannins from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang. Food Sci Hum Wellness 5:65–75

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the USDA NIFA Hatch project HA05029-H, managed by CTAHR, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Authors would like to thank Dr. James Brewbaker for useful discussion.

Author information

Correspondence to Dulal Borthakur.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 36 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bageel, A., Honda, M.D.H., Carrillo, J.T. et al. Giant leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata): a versatile tree-legume for sustainable agroforestry. Agroforest Syst 94, 251–268 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-019-00392-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Giant leucaena
  • Fodder tree legume
  • Mimosine
  • Psyllid resistance
  • Drought tolerance
  • Agroforestry