Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 161–173 | Cite as

Nutritive utilization of Moringa oleifera tree stalks treated with fungi and yeast to replace clover hay in growing lambs

  • K. Z. Kewan
  • F. A. Salem
  • A. Z. M. SalemEmail author
  • A. R. Abdou
  • H. M. El-Sayed
  • S. S. Eisa
  • E. A. Zaki
  • N. E. Odongo


Twenty four Barki lambs with an average body weight of 20.7 ± 0.17 kg were used in a complete randomized design to evaluate the effects of replacing clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) hay as a traditional basal diet (C) with moringa tree stalks (MS) treated with fungi (Trichoderma reesei) (MF) and yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) (MY) under solid-state fermentation on nitrogen and water metabolism, rumen fermentation and economic efficiency of feeds. Lambs were divided into three groups each with eight lambs depending on their live weight. Concentrate feed mixture was similar for all groups and was offered at 2% of live weight with the basal roughage offered ad libitum. The results show that the rations had significant effects (P < 0.05) on DM, crude protein and nitrogen free extract digestibility. Percentage total digestible nutrients was not affected (P < 0.05) by the experimental rations and the values ranged between 0.62 and 0.64. The MY ration had the highest (P < 0.05) digestible crude protein followed by C and MF. The roughage intake expressed as a percentage of total feed intake for MF and MY groups were higher by 4 and 2%, respectively compared to the control group. Average daily gains were 173, 139 and 146 g/head/day, for C, MF and MY groups, respectively. Average dressing percentages based on either fasting weight or empty weight were not affected by the experimental rations. There were no differences (P < 0.05) among groups in N and water balance. Rumen NH3-N concentrations for the MF and MY groups peaked (P < 0.05) at 3 h post feeding whereas for the control it peaked at 6 h post feeding. Rumen TVFA’s concentrations for all treatments increased gradually from zero to 6 h post-feeding. MY diet recorded the highest (P < 0.05) economical feed efficiency compared with MF and control diet. These results suggest that treatment of moringa stalks with S. cerevisiae for 21 days in a solid-state fermentation system improved its nutritive value and is more suitable for practical feeding in sheep rations.


Moringa stalks Sheep Intake Growth Digestibility Fermentation Carcass 



Concentrate feed mixture


Carcass weight


Empty weight


Feed conversion ratio


Moringa stalks


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there are no present or potential conflicts of interest among the authors and other people or organizations that could inappropriately bias their work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal and Poultry Nutrition DepartmentDesert Research CenterCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Animal Production Department, Faculty of AgricultureAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoMexicoMexico
  4. 4.Agric. Botany Department, Faculty of AgricultureAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  5. 5.Department of Animal Sciences, School of AgriculturePwani UniversityKilifiKenya

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