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Comparative study on the urea removal by different nanoporous materials

  • Chee-Heong Ooi
  • Wee-Keat Cheah
  • Fei-Yee YeohEmail author


The current hemodialysis system is not efficient in removing uremic toxins, especially urea. Huge amount of fresh dialysate is required for a dialysis treatment. Poor uremic toxins removal result in toxic waste accumulation in the patients’ bodies, which would lead to cardiovascular diseases and death. Nanoporous materials with excellent pore characteristics and adsorption capacity could be introduced to the hemodialysis system to enhance the urea removal efficiency and regenerate the dialysate. In this study, the viability of using nanoporous materials i.e., oil palm biomass-based activated carbon and mesoporous silica for urea removal was explored. Results indicate that the sulfuric acid-treated activated carbon fiber, palm kernel shell-based activated carbon and amine functionalized silica yielded high urea adsorption capacity. The presence of surface functional groups and excess surface area facilitated the urea adsorption by the synthesized nanoporous materials.


Oil palm biomass Activated carbon Mesoporous silica BET surface area Urea adsorption 



The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI) and My Brain15 program for the financial support provided.

Supplementary material

10450_2019_130_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (88 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 87 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringTranskrian Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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