Advertisement

Adsorption

pp 1–8 | Cite as

Adsorption mechanism of metal ions on activated carbon

  • Ayaka Kuroki
  • Megumi Hiroto
  • Yoshitomo Urushihara
  • Toshihide HorikawaEmail author
  • Ken-Ichiro Sotowa
  • Jesús Rafael Alcántara Avila
Article
  • 111 Downloads

Abstract

Environmental pollution, particularly that caused by the presence of heavy metals in wastewater, is a serious problem. Therefore, heavy metals should be prevented from reaching the natural environment or removed from polluted wastewater. Adsorption is a very economical, simple, effective, highly versatile process for removing harmful pollutants from wastewater. In this study, six commercial activated carbon (AC) samples were used to evaluate the adsorption of Pb2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. We investigated the correlation between the adsorption of metal ions on AC and the pore or surface properties of AC. Large quantities of ions in the order [Pb2+] >> [Zn2+], [Ni2+] were adsorbed on all AC samples. The results showed that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity per unit Dubinin–Polanyi (DP) surface area (SDP) is correlated with the graphite/defect (G/D) ratio of AC; the G/D ratio was analyzed via Raman spectroscopy. The adsorbability of Pb2+ on AC per unit SDP was higher in AC with a larger G/D ratio. Moreover, we found that hard and soft acids and bases contribute to adsorption. The observed correlation facilitates the determination of the adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on AC using the G/D ratio without any adsorption test.

Keywords

Ion adsorption Activated carbon Heavy metal ions HSAB theory 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Grant No. JP16K14461.

Supplementary material

10450_2019_69_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1014 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1013 KB)

References

  1. Aguayo-Villarreal, I.A., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A., Muñiz-Valencia, R.: Preparation of activated carbons from pecan nutshell and their application in the antagonistic adsorption of heavy metal ions. J. Mol. Liq. 230, 686–695 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akazawa, N.: Saishin no tanso zairyou zikkenn gizyutsu (bunsekiã·kaiseki hen). sipec, Japan (2001)Google Scholar
  3. Aldawsari, A., Khan, M.A., Hameed, B.H., Alqadami, A.A., Siddiqui, M.R., Alothman, Z.A., Ahmed, Y.B.H.: Mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon—za novel adsorbent to sequester potentially toxic divalent heavy metals from water. PLoS ONE 12(9), e0184493 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfarra, A., Frackowiak, E., Beguin, F.: The HSAB concept as a means to interpret the adsorption of metal ions onto activated carbons. Appl. Surf. Sci. 228, 84–92 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ALOthman, Z.A., Habila, M.A., Al-Shalan, N.H., Alfadul, S.M., Ali, R., Rashed, I.G.A., Alfarhan, B.: Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto mixed-waste activated carbon: kinetic, thermodynamic, and competitive studies and application to real wastewater samples. Arb. J. Geosci. 9, 315 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badruddoza, A.Z.M., Shawon, Z.B.Z., Daniel, T.W.J., Hidajat, K., Uddin, M.S.: Fe3O4/cyclodextrin polymer nanocomposites for selective heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater. Carbohydr. Polym. 91, 322–332 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayo, J.: Kinetic studies for Cd(II) biosorption from treated urban effluents by native grapefruit biomass (Citrus paradisi L.): the competitive effect of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II). Chem. Eng. J. 191, 278–287 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boehm, H.P.: Chemical identification of surface groups. Adv. Catal. 16, 179–274 (1966)Google Scholar
  9. Borhana, A., Abdullah, N.A., Rashidi, N.A., Taha, M.F.: Removal of Cu2+ and Zn2+ from single metal aqueous solution using rubber-seed shell based activated carbon. Proc. Eng. 148, 694–701 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouhamed, F., Elouear, Z., Bouzid, J., Ouddane, B.: Multi-component adsorption of copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from date stones. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23, 15801–15806 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubinin, M.M., Astakhov, V.A.: Description of adsorption equilibria of vapors on zeolites over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. In: molecular sieve zeolites-II. J. Am. Chem. S. 107, 69–85 (1971)Google Scholar
  12. Freundlich, H.: Of the adsorption gases. Section II. Kinetics and energies of gas adsorption. Introductory paper to section II. T. Faraday. Soc. 28, 195–201 (1931)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grimshaw, P., Calo, J.M., Hradil, G.: Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J. 175, 103–109 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Langmuir, I.: The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1403 (1918)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee, M.-E., Park, J.H., Chung, J.W., Lee, C.-Y., Kang, S.: Removal of Pb and Cu ions from aqueous solution by Mn3O4-coated activated carbon. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 21, 470–475 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu, Y., Yan, J., Yuan, D., Li, Q., Wu, X.: The study of lead removal from aqueous solution using an electrochemical method with a stainless steel net electrode coated with single wall carbon nanotubes. Chem. Eng. J. 218, 81–88 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Llanos, J., Camarillo, R., Perez, A., Canizares, P.: Polymer supported ultrafiltration as a technique for selective heavy metal separation and complex formation constants prediction. Sep. Purif. Technol. 73, 126–134 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loganathan, P., Shim, W.G., Sounthararajah, D.P., Kalaruban, M., Nur, T., Vigneswaran, S.: Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25, 16664–16675 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marsh, H., Siemieniewska, T.: The surface areas of coals as evaluated from the adsorption isotherms of carbon dioxide using the Dubinin–Polanyi equation. Fuel 44, 355–367 (1965)Google Scholar
  20. Meena, A.K., Mishra, G.K., Rai, P.K., Rajagopal, C., Nagar, P.N.: Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using carbon aerogel as an adsorbent. J. Hazard. Mater. B122, 160–170 (2005)Google Scholar
  21. Nieto-Márquez, A., Pinedo-Flores, A., Picasso, G., Atanes, E., Kou, R.S.: Selective adsorption of Pb2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ mixtures on activated carbons prepared from waste tires. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 5, 1060–1067 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oehmen, A., Viegas, R., Velizarov, S., Reis, M.A.M., Crespo, J.G.: Removal of heavy metals from drinking water supplies through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor. Desalination 199, 405–407 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pap, S., Radonic, J., Trifunovic, S., Adamovic, D., Mihajlovic, I., Miloradov, M.V., Sekulic, M.T.: Evaluation of the adsorption potential of eco-friendly activated carbon prepared from cherry kernels for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous wastes. J. Environ. Manag. 184, 297–306 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pearson, R.G.: Hard and soft acids and bases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 3533–8539 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saeidi, N., Parvini, M., Niavarani, Z.: High surface area and mesoporous graphene/activated carbon composite for adsorption of Pb(II) from wastewater. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 3, 2697–2706 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. Sekulić, M.T., Pap, S., Stojanović, Z., Bošković, N., Radonić, J., Knudsen, T.: Efficient removal of priority, hazardous priority and emerging pollutants with Prunus armeniaca functionalized biochar from aqueous wastes: experimental optimization and modeling. Sci. Total Environ. 613–614, 736–750 (2018)Google Scholar
  27. Shannon, R.D.: Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomie distances in halides and chaleogenides. Acta Cryst. A32, 751–767 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yoshihara, K., Aikawa, M., Machida, M.: Influence of solution pH and background electrolytes on heavy metals ions adsorption by activated carbons from aqueous solutions. Tanso 237, 61–66 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social SciencesThe University of TokushimaTokushimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations