Advertisement

First-Year Counselors-in-Training and Perceptions of the Group Environment

  • Linwood G. VereenEmail author
  • Lynn Bohecker
  • Anna H. Elliott
  • Kirsten LaMantia
  • Hailey N. Martinez
  • Nathaniel Burrow
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This exploratory study examined the impact of three process groups for first-year, first-semester master’s degree students (N = 20, total). The Group Environment Scale (GES; Moos 1994, 2002), Forms I (Ideal) and R (Real), were utilized to measure the participants’ ideal perceptions and real perceptions of the small group environment. The overall results show that cohesion, leader support, task orientation, order/organization, and leader control were critical aspects of the experience. A group facilitator impact was found when comparing the results from the three different groups. Implications for group work training and future research are presented.

Keywords

Group perceptions Counselors-in-training Group work training 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Auxier, C. R., Hughes, F. R., & Kline, W. B. (2003). Identity development in counselors-in-training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohecker, L., Wathen, C., Wells, P., Salazar, B. M., & Vereen, L. G. (2014). Mindfully educating our future: the MESG curriculum for training emergent counselors. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 39(3), 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohecker, L., Vereen, L. G., Wells, P. C., & Wathen, C. C. (2016a). A mindfulness experiential small group to help students tolerate ambiguity. Counselor Education and Supervision, 55(1), 16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bohecker, L., Wathen, C., Salazar, B., & Vereen, L. G. (2016b). Mindfully educating our future: The MESG curriculum for traiing emergent counselors. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 39(3), 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. (2016). Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs: 2016 standards. Alexandria: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Furr, S. R., & Carroll, J. J. (2003). Critical incidents in student counselor development. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 483–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gibson, D. M., Dollarhide, C. T., & Moss, J. M. (2010). Professional identity development: a grounded theory of transformational tasks of new counselors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gladding, S. T. (2012). Groups: A counseling specialty (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  9. Gowin, D. B. (1981). Educating. Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Howard, E. E., Inman, A. G., & Altman, A. N. (2006). Critical incidents among novice counselor trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 46, 88–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ieva, K. P., Ohrt, J. H., Swank, J. M., & Young, T. (2009). The impact of experiential groups on master students’ counselor and personal development: a qualitative investigation. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 32(4), 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johns, H. (2012). Personal development in counsellor training (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Kruskal, W., & Wallis, W. A. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47(260), 583–621.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1952.10483441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McCarthy, C. J., Falco, L. D., & Villalba, J. (2014). Ethical and professional issues in experiential growth groups: Moving forward. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 39(3), 186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Melchert, T. P., Hays, V. L., Wiljanen, L. M., & Kolocek, A. K. (1996). Testing models of counselor development with a measure of counseling self-efficacy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(6), 640–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moody, S., Kostohryz, K., & Vereen, L. G. (2014). Authentically engaged learning through live supervision: A phenomenological study. Counselor Educatin and Supervision, 53(1), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moos, R. H. (1994). Work environment scale manual: Development, applications, research: A social climate scale. Sunnyvale: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  19. Moos, R (2002). The group evironment scale (3rd edition). Mindgarden.Google Scholar
  20. Ohrt, J. H., Robinson, E., & Hagedorn, W. (2013). Group leader development: Effects of personal growth and psychoeducational groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 38, 30–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ohrt, J. H., Prochenko, Y., Stulmaker, H., Huffman, D., Fernando, D., & Swan, K. (2014). An exploration of group and member development in experiential groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 39(3), 212–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perera-Diltz, D. M., & MacCluskie, K. C. (2013). The counselor educator's survival guide: Designing and teaching outstanding courses in community mental health counseling and school counseling. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pew, S. (2007). Andragogy and pedagogy as foundational theory for student motivation in higher education. InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 2(1), 14–25.Google Scholar
  24. Piaget, J. (1970). Toward a theory of knowledge. NY. Viking.Google Scholar
  25. Sawatzky, D. D., Jevne, R. F., & Clark, G. T. (1994). Becoming empowered: A study of counsellor development. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy/Revue canadienne de counseling et de psychotherapie, 28(3).Google Scholar
  26. Skovholt, T. M., & Rønnestad, M. H. (1992). Themes in therapist and counselor development. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 504–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Skovholt, T. M., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2003). Struggles of the novice counselor and therapist. Journal of Career Development, 30(1), 45–58.Google Scholar
  28. Stoltenberg, C. D., McNeill, B. W., & Delworth, U. (1998). IDM supervision: An integrated developmental model for supervising counselors and therapists. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. Totten, S., Sills, T., Digby, A., & Russ, P. (1991). Scandanavian Journal of Educational Research, 33(4), 231–243.Google Scholar
  30. Wagner, H. H., & Hill, N. R. (2015). Becoming counselors through growth and learning: the entry transition process. Counselor Education and Supervision, 54, 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang, Q., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). The motivational landscape of early adoloscence in the United States and China: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 80(4), 1272–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yalom, I. V., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York: Basic.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linwood G. Vereen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lynn Bohecker
    • 2
  • Anna H. Elliott
    • 3
  • Kirsten LaMantia
    • 4
  • Hailey N. Martinez
    • 5
  • Nathaniel Burrow
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Shippensburg University of PennsylvaniaShippensburgUSA
  2. 2.Liberty UniversityLynchburgUSA
  3. 3.Montana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  4. 4.Southeast Missouri State UniversityCape GirardeauUSA
  5. 5.Grand Canyon UniversityPhoenixUSA
  6. 6.Syracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  7. 7.University of Northern ColoradoGreeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations