Advertisement

Compassion, Forgiveness and Subjective Well-Being among Filipino Counseling Professionals

  • Maryfe M. Roxas
  • Adonis P. DavidEmail author
  • John Jamir Benzon R. Aruta
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

This study examined a research model depicting forgiveness (forgiveness of others, forgiveness of self) as a mediator in the association between compassion (compassion for others, self-compassion) and subjective well-being in a sample of 231 Filipino counseling professionals. The model was tested through path analysis using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire administered to the participants. Results of the path analysis revealed an acceptable fit for the model. A test of indirect effects indicates that forgiveness of others mediated the association between compassion for others and subjective well-being, and between self-compassion and subjective well-being Theoretical and practical implications especially for Filipino counseling professionals are discussed.

Keywords

Compassion for others Self-compassion Forgiveness of others Forgiveness of self Subjective well-being Filipino counselors 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Allemand, M., Hill, P. L., Ghaemmaghami, P., & Martin, M. (2012). Forgiveness and subjective well-being in adulthood: The moderating role of future time perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 32–39.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, A. B., Goldwasser, E. R., & Leary, M. R. (2011). Self-compassion and well-being among older adults. Self and Identity., 11, 428–453.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.595082.Google Scholar
  3. Aruta, J. J. B. (2016). Understanding the structure of autonomy among Filipino adolescents. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Research, 7, 37–49.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, R. A., Lykins, E. L. B., & Peters, J. R. (2012). Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in long-term meditators and matched nonmeditators. The Journal of Positive Psychology., 7, 230–238.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.674548.Google Scholar
  5. Bluth K. & Blanton, P. W. (2014). Mindfulness and self-compassion: Exploring pathways to adolescent emotional well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1298–1309.Google Scholar
  6. Bluth, K., & Blanton, P. W. (2015). The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 219–230.Google Scholar
  7. Bono, G., McCullough, M., & Root, L. M. (2008). Forgiveness, felling closed to others, and well-being: Two longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psyhcology Bulletin, 34(2), 182–195.Google Scholar
  8. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen, J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Datu, J. A. (2014). Forgiveness, gratitude, and subjective well-being among Filipino adolescents. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 36, 262–273.Google Scholar
  10. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, 1–31.Google Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluatios of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.Google Scholar
  12. Hall, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2005). Self-forgiveness: The stepchild of forgiveness research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 621–637.Google Scholar
  13. Hernandez, R. (2010). A short form of the subjective well-being scale for Filipinos. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 1, 105–115.Google Scholar
  14. Hill, P. L. & Allemand, M. (2011) Gratitude, forgivingness, and well-being in adulthood: Tests of moderation and incremental prediction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 397–407.Google Scholar
  15. Hoe, S.L. (2008). Issues and procedures in adopting structural equation modeling technique. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 3(1), 76–83.Google Scholar
  16. Ishii, K., Reyes, J. A. S., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Spontaneous attention to word content versus emotional tone: Differences among three cultures. Psychological Science, 14(1), 39–46.Google Scholar
  17. Karremans, J. C., Van Lange, P. A. M., Ouwerkerk, J. W., & Kluwer, E. S. (2003). When forgiving enhances psychological well- being: The role of interpersonal commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1011–1026.Google Scholar
  18. Krause, N., & Ellison, C. G. (2003). Forgiveness by God, forgiveness of others, and psychological well-being in late life. Journal of Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 77–94.Google Scholar
  19. Lamb, S., & Murphy, J. (2012). Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145205.001.0001.
  20. Legaspi, E. (2017). Dishonesty among Filipino counselors: Manifestations, motivations, and perceived acceptability. Unpublished Dissertation. De La Salle University, Philippines.Google Scholar
  21. Lockard, A. J., Hayes, J. A., Neff, K., & Locke, B. D. (2014). Self-compassion among college counseling center clients: An examination of clinical norms and group differences. Journal of College Counseling, 17, 249–259.Google Scholar
  22. MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 545–552.Google Scholar
  23. Maltby, J., Macaskill, A., & Day, L. (2001). Failure to forgive self and others. A replication and extension of the relationship between forgiveness, personality, social desirability and general health. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 881–885.Google Scholar
  24. Maltby, J., Day, L., & Barber, L. (2004). Forgiveness and mental health variables. Individual Differences, 37, 1629–1641.Google Scholar
  25. Maltby, J., Day, L., & Barber, L. (2005). Forgiveness and happiness. The differing contexts of forgiveness using the distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  26. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.Google Scholar
  27. McCullough, M. E., & Witvliet, C. V. O. (2002). The psychology of forgiveness. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 446–458). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. McKim, L. L., & Smith-Adcock, S. (2014). Trauma counsellors’ quality of life. International Journal for the Advancment in Counseling, 36(1), 58–69.Google Scholar
  29. Mistler, B. (2010). Forgiveness, perfectionism and the role of compassion. Unpublished Dissertation. University of Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Neff, K. D. (2003a). Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250.Google Scholar
  31. Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85–102.Google Scholar
  32. Neff, K. D. (2011). Self-compassion, self-esteem, and well-being. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. Neff, K. D. (2014). Self-compassion and well-being in parents of children with autism. Mindfulness.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0359-2.
  34. Neff, K. D., & Beretvas, S. N. (2013). The role of self-compassion in romantic relationships. Self and Identity, 12, 78–98.Google Scholar
  35. Neff, K. D., & Faso, D. J. (2014). Self-compassion and well-being in parents of children with autism. Mindfulness.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0359-2.
  36. Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12, 160–176.Google Scholar
  37. Neff, K. D., & Vonk, R. (2009). Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of Personality, 77(1), 23–50.Google Scholar
  38. Neff, K., Kirkpatrick, K., & Rude, S. (2007a). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139–154.Google Scholar
  39. Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. (2007b). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 908–916.Google Scholar
  40. Pommier, E. (2010). The compassion scale. Unpublished Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Ross, S. R., Kendall, A. C., Matters, K. G., Rye, M. S., & Wrobel, T. A. (2004). A personological examination of self- and other-forgiveness in the five factor model. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(2), 207–214.Google Scholar
  42. Ross, S. R., Hertenstein, M. J., & Wrobel, T. A. (2007). Maladaptive correlates of the failure to forgive self and others. Further evidence for a two component model of forgiveness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 158–167.Google Scholar
  43. Roxas, M., David, A., & Caligner, E. (2014). Examining the relation of compassion and forgiveness among Filipino counselors. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 53–61.Google Scholar
  44. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Muller H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and goodness-of-fit models. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74.Google Scholar
  45. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Method, 7(4), 422–445.Google Scholar
  46. Stralen, P., & Covic, T. (2006). A review of forgiveness process models and a coping of framework to guide future research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(10), 1059–1085.Google Scholar
  47. Thompson, L., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., Heinze, L., Neufeld, J. E., Shorey, H. S., Roberts, J. C., & Roberts, D. E. (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of Personality, 73, 313–359.Google Scholar
  48. Thompson, I., Amatea, E., & Thompson, E. (2014). Personal and contextual predictors of mental health counselors' compassion fatigue and burnout. Journal of Mental Health Counseling., 36(1), 58–77.Google Scholar
  49. Toussaint, L., & Friedman, P. (2008). Forgiveness, gratitude, and well-being: The mediating roles of affect and beliefs. Journal of Happiness Studies., 10, 635–654.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8.Google Scholar
  50. Wei, M., Liao, K., Ku, T., & Shaffer, P. A. (2011). Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults. Journal of Personality, 79(1), 191–221.Google Scholar
  51. Wispe, L. (1991). The psychology of sympathy. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  52. Witvliet, C. V. O., & McCullough, M. E. (2007). Forgiveness and health: A review and theoretical exploration of emotional pathways. In S. G. Posy (Ed.), Altruism and health: Is it good to be good? New York: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0017.
  53. Witvliet, C. V. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Vanderlaan, K. L. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harbouring grudges: Implications for emotions, physiology and health. Psychological Science, 12, 117–123.Google Scholar
  54. Wohl, M. J. A., De Shea, L., & Wahkinney, R. L. (2008). Looking within: Measuring the state of forgiveness and its relationship to psychological well-being. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 40(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  55. Worthington, E. L. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Yarnell, L. M., & Neff, K. D. (2013). Self-compassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Self and Identity, 12, 146–159.Google Scholar
  57. Zessin, U., Dickhauser, O., & Garbade, S. (2015). The relationship between self compassion and well-being: A meta-analysis. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 7, 340–364.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12051.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryfe M. Roxas
    • 1
  • Adonis P. David
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Jamir Benzon R. Aruta
    • 2
  1. 1.Philippine Normal UniversityManilaPhilippines
  2. 2.Counseling and Educational Psychology DepartmentDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations