Advertisement

A “Chameleonic” Identity: Foreign-Born Doctoral Students in U.S. Counselor Education

  • Claudia G. Interiano
  • Jae Hoon Lim
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

This study explored the interplay between a multidimensional model of acculturation and professional identity development among eight foreign-born doctoral students in U.S. counselor education. Themes generated through an interpretive phenomenological analysis revealed that the participants, while trying to adapt to the Euro-American cultural context of their counselor programs, experienced a sense of conflict, loss, and grief, resulting in what they called a “chameleonic” professional identity. Findings illustrated that for international counseling students, professional identity development is an arduous and complex process deeply intertwined with their acculturation experiences. Implications for counselor programs and future research are further discussed.

Keywords

Foreign-born students Acculturation Counselor education 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Benet-Martinez, V., & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural identity integration (BII): components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 1015–1050.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00337.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5–68.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, T. A. (2015). A phenomenological study on international doctoral students’ acculturation experiences at a U.S. university. Journal of International Students, 5(3), 285–299 Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060045.pdf.Google Scholar
  4. Duan, C., Nilsson, J., Wang, C. D. C., Debernardi, N., Klevens, C., & Tallent, C. (2011). Internationalizing counselling: a southeast Asian perspective. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(1), 29–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2011.558253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farrugia, C. A., & Bhandari, R. (2014). Open doors 2014: report on international educational exchange. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
  6. Garrett, M. T., Borders, L. D., Crutchfield, L. B., Torres-Rivera, E., Brotherton, D., & Curtis, R. (2001). Multicultural supervision: a paradigm of cultural responsiveness for supervisors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(2), 147–158.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2001.tb00511.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giorgi, A. (1997). The theory, practice, and evaluation of phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28(2), 235–260.  https://doi.org/10.1163/156916297X00103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hays, D. G., & Wood, C. (2011). Infusing qualitative traditions in counseling research designs. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(3), 288–295.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00091.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Institute of International Education (IIE). (2016). International students by academic level, 2014/15–2015/16. Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/opendoors.
  10. Ivey, A., Ivey, M., Myers, J., & Sweeney, T. (2005). Developmental counseling and therapy: promoting wellness over the lifespan. Boston: LaHaska Press.Google Scholar
  11. Kim, D., Bankart, C. A. S., & Isdell, L. (2011). International doctorates: trends analysis on their decision to stay in US. Higher Education, 62(2), 141–161.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-010-9371-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kissil, K., Davey, M., & Davey, A. (2013). Therapists in a foreign land: acculturation, language proficiency and counseling self-efficacy among foreign-born therapists practicing in the United States. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 35(3), 216–233.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-012-9178-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lerma, E., Zamarripa, M. X., Oliver, M., & Cavazos-Vela, J. (2015). Making our way through: voices of Hispanic counselor educators. Journal of Counselor Education and Supervision, 54(3), 162–175.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leyva, V. L. (2011). First-generation Latina graduate students: balancing professional identity development with traditional family roles. New Generation for Teaching and Learning, (127), 21–31.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.454.
  15. Mittal, M., & Wieling, E. (2006). Training experiences of international doctoral students in marriage and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32(3), 369–383.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2006.tb01613.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mori, S. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(2), 137–143.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mori, Y., Inman, A. G., & Caskie, G. I. L. (2009). Supervising international students: relationship between acculturation, supervisor multicultural competence, cultural discussions, and supervision satisfaction. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(1), 10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ng, K. M. (2006a). Counselor educators’ perceptions of and experiences with international students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 28(1), 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-005-8492-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ng, K. M. (2006b). International students in CACREP-accredited counseling programs. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research, 34(1/2), 20–32.Google Scholar
  20. Ng, K. M., & Smith, S. D. (2009). Perceptions and experiences of international trainees in counseling and related programs. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(4), 57–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-008-9068-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nilsson, J. E., & Anderson, M. Z. (2004). Supervising international students: the role of acculturation, role ambiguity, and multicultural discussions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(3), 306–312.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.35.3.306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ratts, M. J., Singh, A. A., Nassar-McMillan, S., Butler, S. K., & McCullough, J. R. (2016). Multicultural and social justice counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 44(1), 28–48.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmcd.12035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rudmin, F. W. (2009). Constructs, measurements and models of acculturation and acculturative stress. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(2), 106–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schwartz, S., Unger, J., Zamboanga, B., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237–251.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Singaravelu, H. D., & Pope, M. (Eds.). (2006). A handbook for counseling international students in the United States. Alexandria: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699–713.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith, S. D., & Ng, K. M. (2009). International counseling trainees’ experiences and perception of their multicultural counseling training in the United States: a mixed method inquiry. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31(4), 271–285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-009-9083-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretive phenomenological analysis: theory, method and research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Sue, D., & Sue, D. (2015). Counseling the culturally diverse: theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Survey of Earned Doctorates. (2016). Doctorate recipients, by citizenship and broad field of study: selected years, 1981–2015. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/sed/2015/pdf/tab18.pdf.
  31. Vagle, M. (2014). Crafting phenomenological research. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  32. Woo, H., Jang, Y. J., & Hensfield, M. S. (2015). International doctoral students in counselor education: coping strategies in supervision training. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 43(4), 288–304.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmcd.12022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yoon, E., & Portman, T. A. A. (2004). Critical issues of literature on counseling international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 33–44.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2004.tb00359.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zeigler, K. & Camarota S. A. (2014). U.S. immigrant population record 41.3 million in 2013. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved, from http://cis.org/immigrant-population-record-2013.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CounselingUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational LeadershipUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations