Telescopic Hydraulic Cylinder Made of Composite Material

  • Luigi SolazziEmail author
  • Andrea Buffoli


The aim of this research is to design a telescopic hydraulic cylinder, normally used in industrial filed, made of different materials and in particular composite material instead of classical structural steel. Specifically it will refer to the application of this actuator on a dump truck and designated to the transport of soil material, starting from hard load conditions and from the minimum incline to guarantee the complete emptying of the dump truck, the geometry of the cylinder has been defined. The peculiarity of this research is about the materials employed for the design, and the future fulfilment of this component. The work deal with the custom of 4 different materials, or rather: 2 type of steel (structural: S235 JR and stainless AISI 304), aluminum alloy 7075-T6 (Ergal) and a composite material made of epoxy resin and carbon fibers. The elaboration of the new solutions presented, has been realized evaluating the barrel of the cylinder as a container in a pressure vessel with thin walled, whereas the rod as a beam prone to buckling. Is possible to observe how the study has been faced also with the aid of analysis about finite elements, as well as to verify the design of the component, also to prove others phenomena, as the instability for peak load. Moreover is possible to highlight that the adopted theory for the planning of composite barrel, despite load conditions are the same, they differs from the theory used for aluminum and steel because of his anisotropic behavior. Given the particular nature of the composite material, the arguments related with technology are set out, about technology production through filament winding and the assembly of the components of the telescopic cylinder. Thanks to the achieved results, is possible to observe how the use of the composite material, for the realization of that component, can be extremely favorable for the weight achieving a reduction of the 96% starting from 5537 N, reaching 196 N.


Carbon fiber composites Hydraulic cylinder Telescopic cylinder Lightweight structure Finite element method 



  1. 1.
    J. Njuguna, Lightweight Composite Structures in Transport Design, Manufacturing, Analysis and Performance, Woodhead Publishing Series in composites Science and Engineering, vol. 67, Cambridge, MA: Woodhead Publishing , 2016, p. 474.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Omar, F., Jim, T., Mohini, S.: Lightweight and Sustainable Materials for Automotive Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Davies, Lightweight sandwich construction, Manchester: CIB Working Commision, 2001, p. 369.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mallick, P.: Materials, Design and Manufacturing for Lightweight Vehicles. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Solazzi, L.: Applied research for weight reduction of an industrial trailer. FME Trans. 40, 57–62 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Solazzi, L.: Wheel rims for industrial vehicles: comparative and experimental analyses. Int. J.Heavy Veh. Syst. 18(2), 214–225 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Collotta, M., Solazzi, L.: New design concept of a tank made of plastic material for freighting vehicle. Int. J. Auto. Mech. Eng. 14, 4603–4615 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Collotta, L. Solazzi, S. Pandini and G. Tomasoni, “New design concept of a downhill mountain bike frame made of a natural composite material,” J Sports Engineering and Technology I-7, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 50-56, 13 June 2017.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Collotta, M., Solazzi, L., Pandini, S., Tomasoni, G., Alberti, M., Donzella, G.: Design and realization a skiff racing boat hull made of natural fibers reinforced composite, in AIP Conference Proceedings, Naple, (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Solazzi and R. Scalmana, “New design concept for a lifitng platform made of composite material,” Application of Composite Materilas, An International Journal for Science and Aplication of Composite Materials, Appl Compos Mater, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 615-626, 14 September 2012.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Solazzi, A. Assi and F. Ceresoli, “New Design Concept for an Excavator Arms by Using Composite Material,” Applied Composite Materials, An International Journal for the Science and Apllication of Composite Materials, Appl Compos Mater, vol. 20, no. 4, 2017.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Solazzi, L.: Feasibility study of hydraulic cylinder subject to high pressure made of aluminum alloy and composite material. Compos. Struct. 209, 739–746 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13. Dump cylinder-HY18–0032-Parker Hannifin, [Online]. Available: Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  14. 14.
    S. Uzny, K. Sokot and L. Kutrowski, “Stability of a hydraulic telescopic cylinder subjected to Euler's load,” Lecture Notes In Mechianical Engineering, LNME, vol. Volume part F10, pp. 581-588, 2017.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Morelli, “On the buckling behaviour of telescopic hydrasulic cylinders,” Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 417-418, pp. 281-284, October 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Micheal, F.: Ashby: Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 3rd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Agarwal, B.D., Broutman, L., Chandrashekhara, K.: Analysis and Performace of Fiber Composites, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tiwari, A., Alenezi, M.R., Jun, S.C.: Advanced composite materials. Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balasuramanian, M.: Composite Materials and Processing. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kar, K.: Composite Materials Processing, Applications, Characterizations. Springer, Berlin (2017)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schijve, J.: Fatigue on Structures and Materials. Springer, Berlin (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harris, B.: Fatigue in Composites Science and Technology of the Fatigue Response of Fibre-Reinforced Plastics. Woodhead publishing limited and CRC press, Boca Raton (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vassilopoulos, A.: Fatigue Life Prediction of Composites and Composite Structures. Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC press, Boca Raton (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jones, R.M.: Buckling of Bars, Plates and Shells. Bull Ridge Publishing, Blacksburg (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Lin, Y. Guo and H. Lin, “Critical load and optimum design for hydraulic cylinders,” Zhongguo Jixie Gongcheng/ China Mechanical Engineering, CJME, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 389-393, 2011.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vullo, V.: Circular Cylinders and Pressure Vessel, Stress Analysis and Design. Springer, Berlin (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gay, D., Hoa, S.V., Tsai, S.W.: Composite Materials: Design and Applications, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Peters, Composite Filament Winding, Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International, 2011, p. 167.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bragohain, M.K.: Composite Structures Design, Mechanics, Analysis, Manufacturing and Testing. CRC press, Boca Raton (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Hunt and N. Vaughan, The Hydraulic Handbook, 9th ed., Kidlington, Ox: Elsevier Advanced Tecnology, 1996.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. Ramasamy and A. M. J. Basha, “Multistage hydraulic cylinder buckling analysis by classical and numerical methods with different mounting conditions,” Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, LNME, vol. F8, pp. 901-910, 2017.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abramovich, H.: Stability and Vibrations of Thin-Walled Composite Structures. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge (2017)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. D. Pilkey and D. F. Pilkey, Stress Concentration Factors, Wiley, NJ: Peterson, 2017.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vassilopoulos, A.: Fatigue and facture of adhesively-bonded composite joints, behaviour simulations and modelling, Elsevier, Wooden Publishing, Cambridge (2015)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Campilho, R.D.: Strength Prediction of Adhesively-Bonded Joints. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Kumar and K. L. Mittal, Advances in Modeling and Design of Adhesively Bonded System, Beverly, MA: Scrivener Publishing, 2013.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Da Silva, L.F.M., Ochsner, A.: Modeling of Adhesively Bonded Joints. Springer, Berlin (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sapaggiari, A., Dragoni, E., Castagnetti, D.: Mixed-mode strength of thin adhesive films: experimental characterization through a tubolarspecimen with reduced edge effect. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 89(8), 660–675 (2013)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. Botelho, R. A. Silva, L. C. Pardini and M. C. Rezende, “Evaluation of adhesion of continuos fiber-epoxy composite/Aluminum laminates,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology ,J ADHES SCI TECHNOL, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 820-824, 2013.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamdy Makhlouf, A.S., Scharnweber, D.: Handbook of Nanoceramics and Nanocomposit Coatings and Materials. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2015)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chung, D.D.L.: Carbon Fiber Composites. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly

Personalised recommendations