Advertisement

Damage Characteristics of CFRP Laminates Subjected to Multiple Lightning Current Strike

  • Jinru Sun
  • Xueling YaoEmail author
  • Xiangyu Tian
  • Jingliang Chen
  • Yi Wu
Article
  • 323 Downloads

Abstract

The lightning damage depths and areas of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates subjected to multiple continuous sequential lightning current components with different timing combinations were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results indicated that the CFRP laminates suffered serious lightning damage, including fracture of the carbon fibers and layer delamination. After a multiple lightning strike composed of lightning components A, B and C, the surface temperature of the CFRP laminates, which was projected from the measured temperature with lower magnitude, can exceed 1600 °C. The damage area and depth were approximately 2790 mm2 and 1.28 mm in the “ABCD” test mode. The damage depth was found to be closely related to lightning components A, B and D, which are accompanied by the shockwave and the overpressure effect, the dielectric breakdown effect and the local thermal effect. The increases in the surface temperature and damage area after lightning strike were mainly affected by the lightning component C with substantial thermal effect. The application sequence and material properties are important factors for evaluating the damage effect of the newly added lightning component on samples that have suffered from multiple continuous lightning components. The influencing factors and analysis method for CFRP laminate lightning damage subjected to multiple continuous sequential lightning components may provide both experimental support and a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism of the lightning effect and the refinement and improvement of a lightning direct effect test method for CFRP laminates in the future.

Keywords

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer Multiple continuous sequential lightning strike Damage mechanism Non-destructive testing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 51477132, 51521065].

References

  1. 1.
    Society of Automotive Engineers.: ARP 5412, Aircraft lightning environment and related test waveforms. Warrendale, PA (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rupke, E.: Lightning direct effects handbook. Lightning Technologies Inc, Pittsfield (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisher, F.A., Plumer, J.A., Perala, R.A.: Aircraft lightning protection handbook. Lightning Technologies Inc, Pittsfield (1989)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazur, V.: Lightning threat to aircraft: do we know all we need to know? J. Aircr. 30, 156–159 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roeseler, B., Sarh, B., Kismarton, M.: Composite Structures - the First 100 Years. 16th International Conference on Composite Materials, ICCM-16, Kyoto, Japan (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marsch, G.: Airbus A350 XWB update. Reinf. Plast. 54, 20–24 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yao, Y., Sun, J., Chen, J., Bai, D.: Direct current resistance testing methods of carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Mater. Res. Innov. 19, 64–69 (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, S., Yin, J., Yao, X., Chang, F., Shi, X.: Damage analysis for carbon fiber/epoxy composite exposed to simulated lightning current. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 35, 1201–1213 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheng, J., Ji, H., Qiu, J., Takagi, T., Uchimoto, T., Hu, N.: Role of interlaminar interface on bulk conductivity and electrical anisotropy of CFRP laminates measured by eddy current method. NDT&E Int. 68, 1–12 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirano, Y., Katsumata, Y., Iwahori, Y., Todoroki, A.: Artificial lightning testing on graphite/epoxy composite laminate. Compos. Part A. 41, 1461–1470 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, Y., Li, R., Lu, L., Huang, X.: Experimental study of damage characteristics of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates subjected to lightning strike. Compos. Part A. 79, 164–175 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chemartin, L., Lalande, P., Peyrou, B., Chazottes, A., Elias, P.Q., Delalondre, C., Cheron, B., Lago, F.: Direct effects of lightning on aircraft structure: analysis of the thermal, electrical and mechanical constraints. J. Aerospace Lab. 5, 1–15 (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, Z., Yue, Z., Wang, F., Ji, Y.: Combining analysis of coupled electrical-thermal and blow-off impulse effects on composite laminate induced by lightning strike. Appl. Compos. Mater. 22, 189–207 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yin, J., Li, S., Yao, X., Chang, F., Li, L., Zhang, X.: Lightning strike ablation damage characteristic analysis for carbon Fiber/epoxy composite laminate with fastener. Appl. Compos. Mater. 23, 821–837 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dong, Q., Guo, Y., Chen, J., Yao, X., Yi, X., Lu, P., Jia, Y.: Influencing factor analysis based on electrical-thermal-pyrolytic simulation of carbon Fiber composites lightning damage. Compos. Struct. 140, 1–10 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abdelal, G., Murphy, A.: Nonlinear numerical modeling of lightning strike effect on composite panels with temperature dependent material properties. Compos. Struct. 109, 268–278 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rakov, V.A.: The physics of lightning. Surv. Geophys. 34, 701–729 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Society of Automotive Engineers.: ARP 5416, Aircraft lightning test methods. Warrendale, PA (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Society of Automotive Engineers.: ARP 5414, Aircraft Lightning Zoning. Warrendale, PA (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yin, J.J., Chang, F., Li, S., Yao, X., Sun, J., Xiao, Y.: Lightning strike ablation damage influence factors analysis of carbon Fiber/epoxy composite based on coupled electrical-thermal simulation. Appl. Compos. Mater. 24, 1089–1106 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ogasawara, T., Hirano, Y., Yoshimura, A.: Coupled thermal-electrical analysis for carbon/epoxy composites exposed to simulated lightning current. Compos. Part A. 41, 973–981 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lowke, J.J., Voshall, R.E., Ludwig, H.C.: Decay of electrical conductance and temperature of arc plasmas. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3513–3523 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Munoz, R., Delgado, S., Gonzalez, C., Romano, B., Wang, Y., LLorca, J.: Modeling lightning impact Thermo-mechanical damage on composite materials. Appl. Compos. Mater. 21, 149–164 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Semenov, S., Cetegen, B.: Spectroscopic temperature measurements in direct current arc plasma jets used in thermal spray processing of materials. J. Therm. Spray Technol. 10, 326–336 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sun, J., Yao, X., Xu, W., Chen, J.: Dynamic characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced polymer under nondestructive lightning current. Polym. Compos. 39, 1514–1521 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power EquipmentXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations