# Computational Models for the Mechanical Investigation of Stomach Tissues and Structure

## Abstract

Bariatric surgery is performed on obese people aiming at reducing the capacity of the stomach and/or the absorbing capability of the gastrointestinal tract. A more reliable and effective approach to bariatric surgery may integrate different expertise, in the areas of surgery, physiology and biomechanics, availing of a strong cooperation between clinicians and engineers. This work aimed at developing a computational model of the stomach, as a computational tool for the physio-mechanical investigation of stomach functionality and the planning of bariatric procedures. In this sense, coupled experimental and numerical activities were developed. Experimental investigations on pig and piglet stomachs aimed at providing information about stomach geometrical configuration and structural behavior. The computational model was defined starting from the analysis of data from histo-morphometric investigations and mechanical tests. A fiber-reinforced visco-hyperelastic constitutive model was developed to interpret the mechanical response of stomach tissues; constitutive parameters were identified considering mechanical tests at both tissue and structure levels. Computational analyses were performed to investigate the pressure–volume behavior of the stomach. The developed model satisfactorily interpreted results from experimental activities, suggesting its reliability. Furthermore, the model was exploited to investigate stress and strain fields within gastric tissues, as the stimuli for mechanoreceptors that interact with the central nervous system leading to the feeling of satiety. In this respect, the developed computational model may be employed to evaluate the influence of bariatric intervention on the stimulation of mechanoreceptors, and the following meal induced satiety.

## Keywords

Stomach mechanics Experimental methods Anisotropic constitutive formulation Constitutive parameters Computational biomechanics## Notes

### Acknowledgments

The authors warrant that the article is the authors’ original work, hasn’t received prior publication and isn’t under consideration for publication elsewhere. No specifying funding was received to support the reported research activities.

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