Health-Related Quality of Life Following Concussion in Collegiate Student-Athletes With and Without Concussion History
The purpose of this study was to compare global and specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) throughout concussion recovery between those with and without concussion history. Student-athletes diagnosed with concussion completed global (Short Form-12v2; SF-12) and specific (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS) HRQOL assessments at baseline, 24–48 h, asymptomatic, return-to-play, and 6-months post-injury. Baseline scores were compared to post-injury time points for SF-12 subscores (physical and mental; PCS-12, MCS-12) and HADS subscores (depression and anxiety; HADS-D, HADS-A). We conducted a 2 × 5 mixed model ANOVA for group (with and without concussion history) and time (four post-injury assessments compared to baseline). We did not observe interaction or main effects for group, except those with concussion history had worse HADS-D subscores than those without concussion history. PCS-12 subscores were worse at 24–48 h, asymptomatic, and return-to-play compared to baseline, but returned to baseline 6-months post-injury. MCS-12 subscores did not differ at any time points. HADS-D subscores worsened 24–48 h post-injury, but improved for additional assessments compared to baseline. HADS-A improved post-injury compared to baseline at asymptomatic, return-to-play, and 6-month assessments, but was similar to baseline 24–48 h post-injury. HRQOL physical aspects slightly worsened post-injury and restored to baseline after returning to play.
KeywordsSport-related concussion Mild traumatic brain injury Short-Form 12 Hospital anxiety and depression scale
CARE Consortium Investigators are as follows: April Marie (Reed) Hoy, MS, ATC (Azusa Pacific University); Joseph B. Hazzard Jr, EdD, ATC (Bloomsburg University); Louise A. Kelly, PhD (California Lutheran University); Justus D. Ortega, PhD (Humboldt State University); Nicholas Port, PhD (Indiana University); Margot Putukian MD (Princeton University); T. Dianne Langford, PhD, and Ryan Tierney, PhD, ATC (Temple University); Darren E. Campbell, MD, and Gerald McGinty, DPT (United States Air Force Academy); Patrick O’Donnell, MHA (United States Coast Guard Academy); Holly J. Benjamin MD (University of Chicago); Thomas Buckley, EdD, ATC, and Thomas W. Kaminski, PhD, ATC (University of Delaware); James R. Clugston, MD, MS (University of Florida); Julianne D. Schmidt, PhD, ATC (University of Georgia); Luis A. Feigenbaum, DPT, ATC (University of Miami); James T. Eckner, MD, MS (University of Michigan); Kevin Guskiewicz, PhD, ATC, and Jason P. Mihalik, PhD, CAT(C), ATC (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); Jessica Dysart Miles, PhD, ATC (University of North Georgia); Christina L. Master, MD (University of Pennsylvania); Micky Collins, PhD, and Anthony P. Kontos, PhD (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center); Jeffrey J. Bazarian, MD, MPH (University of Rochester); Sara P.D. Chrisman, MD, MPH (University of Washington); Christopher Todd Bullers, MD, and Christopher M. Miles, MD (Wake Forest University); Brian H. Dykhuizen, MS, ATC (Wilmington College).
This project was supported, in part, with support from the Grand Alliance Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium, funded, in part by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the Department of Defense (DOD). The U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, 820 Chandler Street, Fort Detrick MD 21702-5014 is the awarding and administering acquisition office. This work was supported by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs through the Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Program under Award NO W81XWH-14-2-0151. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the Department of Defense (DHP funds).
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