Pentagalloyl Glucose and Its Functional Role in Vascular Health: Biomechanics and Drug-Delivery Characteristics

  • Sourav S. Patnaik
  • Dan T. Simionescu
  • Craig J. Goergen
  • Kenneth Hoyt
  • Shashank Sirsi
  • Ender A. Finol


Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) is an elastin-stabilizing polyphenolic compound that has significant biomedical benefits, such as being a free radical sink, an anti-inflammatory agent, anti-diabetic agent, enzymatic resistant properties, etc. This review article focuses on the important benefits of PGG on vascular health, including its role in tissue mechanics, the different modes of pharmacological administration (e.g., oral, intravenous and endovascular route, intraperitoneal route, subcutaneous route, and nanoparticle based delivery and microbubble-based delivery), and its potential therapeutic role in vascular diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). In particular, the use of PGG for AAA suppression and prevention has been demonstrated to be effective only in the calcium chloride rat AAA model. Therefore, in this critical review we address the challenges that lie ahead for the clinical translation of PGG as an AAA growth suppressor.


Pentagalloyl glucose Abdominal aortic aneurysms Elastin Collagen Drug delivery 


60Co-γ rays

Cobalt-60 gamma rays


6-Keto-prostaglandin 1α




Alanine aminotransferase


Activator protein-1


Arachidonic acid


Metastatic mouse melanoma cells

BHK-21 cells

Baby hamster kidney cell


Transfected microglial cell line




50% cytotoxic concentration


Maximum serum concentration that a drug achieves in a test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose

CML cell line K56

Human chronic myelogenous leukemia






Acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase


The concentration of a compound where 50% of its maximal effect is observed


Epidermal growth factor


High-affinity IgE receptors


Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors


Glutathione peroxidase

HBZY-1 cells

Glomerular mesangial cell line


Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells


Human umbilical vein endothelial cells


Basic salivary protein


Half maximal inhibitory concentration


Intercellular adhesion molecule 1












Dissociation constant—represents ligand-receptor affinity


Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells


Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1


Nuclear factor-kB

NO-cGMP pathway

Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway


Nitric oxide synthase


Not reported


Nonstructural protein 3




Human prostate cancer cell line


Polymorphonuclear leukocyte system


Recombinant human aldose reductase


Reactive oxygen species


Severe combined immunodeficiency


Human skin melanoma cell line


Superoxide dismutase


Specificity protein 1


Transforming growth factor beta 1


Time at which the Cmax is observed


Tumor necrosis factor alpha


Thromboxane B2


(Pro-) monocytic cell lines

V79-4 cells

Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts


Xanthine oxidase



The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose and would like to acknowledge research funding from American Heart Association Award #16CSA28480006. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the American Heart Association.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 95 kb)


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vascular Biomechanics and Biofluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of BioengineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  3. 3.Weldon School of Biomedical EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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