Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 22–38 | Cite as

Applications of Wireless Power Transfer in Medicine: State-of-the-Art Reviews

  • Julian Moore
  • Sharon Castellanos
  • Sheng Xu
  • Bradford Wood
  • Hongliang Ren
  • Zion Tsz Ho TseEmail author


Magnetic resonance within the field of wireless power transfer has seen an increase in popularity over the past decades. This rise can be attributed to the technological advances of electronics and the increased efficiency of popular battery technologies. The same principles of electromagnetic theory can be applied to the medical field. Several medical devices intended for use inside the body use batteries and electrical circuits that could be powered wirelessly. Other medical devices limit the mobility or make patients uncomfortable while in use. The fundamental theory of electromagnetics can improve the field by solving some of these problems. This survey paper summarizes the recent uses and discoveries of wireless power in the medical field. A comprehensive search for papers was conducted using engineering search engines and included papers from related conferences. During the initial search, 247 papers were found then non-relevant papers were eliminated to leave only suitable material. Seventeen relevant journal papers and/or conference papers were found, then separated into defined categories: Implants, Pumps, Ultrasound Imaging, and Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. The approach and methods for each paper were analyzed and compared yielding a comprehensive review of these state of the art technologies.


Wireless power transfer Wireless charging Implants Medical devices 



NIH does not endorse or recommend any commercial products, processes, or services. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government nor does it constitute policy, endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government or National Institutes of Health (NIH). Please reference U.S. Code of Federal Regulations or U.S. Food and Drug Administration for further information. This project is sponsored by the NIH Center for Interventional Oncology Grant. This study was also supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Bench-to-Bedside Award, the NIH Center for Interventional Oncology Grant, the National Science Foundation (NSF) I-Corps Team Grant (1617340), the Singapore Academic Research Fund under Grant R-397-000-227-112, NSF REU site Program 1359095, the UGA-AU Inter-Institutional Seed Funding, the American Society for Quality Dr. Richard J. Schlesinger Grant, the PHS Grant UL1TR000454 from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program, and the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.


  1. 1.
    Agbinya, J. I. Wireless Power Transfer, Vol. 45. Gistrup: River Publishers, 2015.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baillie, J. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Basic Principles and Practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berdat, P., et al. Short-and long-term mechanical cardiac assistance. Int. J. Artif. Organs 24(5):263–273, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Campi, T., et al. Wireless power transfer charging system for AIMDs and pacemakers. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 64(2):633–642, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    CEPT, U., Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); radio frequency identification equipment operating in the band 865 MHz to 868 MHz with power levels up to 2 W; Part 1: Technical requirements and methods of measurement [Internet], 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cobo, A., et al. Characterization of a wireless implantable infusion micropump for small animal research under simulated in vivo conditions. In: Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), 2014 IEEE, 2014.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Franchis, R., et al. ICCE consensus for bowel preparation and prokinetics. Endoscopy 37(10):1040–1045, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Directive, H. A. T. Council Directive 90/385/EEC of 20 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to active implantable medical devices. Off. J. L 189(20/07):0017–0036, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dissanayake, T. D., et al. A novel low temperature transcutaneous energy transfer system suitable for high power implantable medical devices: performance and validation in sheep. Artif. Organs 34(5):E160–E167, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fang, X., et al. Wireless power transfer system for capsule endoscopy based on strongly coupled magnetic resonance theory. In: 2011 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2011.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feng, L., Y. Mao, and Y. Cheng. An efficient and stable power management circuit with high output energy for wireless powering capsule endoscopy. In: Solid State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC), 2011 IEEE Asian, IEEE, 2011.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fuyuno, I. Olympus finds market rival hard to swallow. Nature 438(7070):913, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gabriel, S., R. Lau, and C. Gabriel. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues. Phys. Med. Biol. 41(11):2271, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gay-Balmaz, P., and O. J. Martin. Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators. J. Appl. Phys. 92(5):2929–2936, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghovanloo, M., and K. Najafi. Fully integrated wideband high-current rectifiers for inductively powered devices. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(11):1976–1984, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Ha, S., et al. Silicon-integrated high-density electrocortical interfaces. Proc. IEEE 105(1):11–33, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ho, J. S., et al. Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(22):7974–7979, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. ICNIRP statement on the “guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 ghz)”. Health Phys. 97(3):257–258, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karalis, A., J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić. Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer. Ann. Phys. 323(1):34–48, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karumbaiah, L., et al. Relationship between intracortical electrode design and chronic recording function. Biomaterials 34(33):8061–8074, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim, J. -D., C. Sun, and I. -S. Suh. A proposal on wireless power transfer for medical implantable applications based on reviews. In: Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), 2014 IEEE, 2014.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim, L., S. C. Tang, and S. -S. Yoo. Prototype modular capsule robots for capsule endoscopies. In: 2013 13th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS), IEEE, 2013.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim, C., et al. Design of miniaturized wireless power receivers for mm-sized implants. In: Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), 2017 IEEE, 2017.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kornbluth, A., et al. ICCE consensus for inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy 37(10):1051–1054, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kurs, A., et al. Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances. Science 317(5834):83–86, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee, H., et al. Biomechanical analysis of silicon microelectrode-induced strain in the brain. J. Neural Eng. 2(4):81, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee, S. B., et al. An inductively powered scalable 32-channel wireless neural recording system-on-a-chip for neuroscience applications. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 4(6):360–371, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee, S.-Y., et al. A programmable implantable microstimulator SoC with wireless telemetry: application in closed-loop endocardial stimulation for cardiac pacemaker. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 5(6):511–522, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lenaerts, B., and R. Puers. An inductive power link for a wireless endoscope. Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(7):1390–1395, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li, P., and R. Bashirullah. A wireless power interface for rechargeable battery operated medical implants. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II Express Briefs 54(10):912–916, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu, X., et al. Wireless power transfer system design for implanted and worn devices. In: Bioengineering Conference, 2009 IEEE 35th Annual Northeast, IEEE, 2009.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maisel, W. H. Improving the security and privacy of implantable medical devices. N Engl. J. Med. 362(13):1164, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mark, M. Powering mm-size Wireless Implants for Brain-Machine Interfaces. Berkeley: University of California, 2011.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    McConnell, G. C., et al. Implanted neural electrodes cause chronic, local inflammation that is correlated with local neurodegeneration. J. Neural Eng. 6(5):056003, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Monti, G., P. Arcuti, and L. Tarricone. Resonant inductive link for remote powering of pacemakers. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 63(11):3814–3822, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Monti, G., et al. Wireless power link for rechargeable pacemakers. In: 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications (IMWS-AMP), 2017.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muller, R., et al. A minimally invasive 64-channel wireless μECoG implant. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(1):344–359, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    O’Driscoll, S., A. S. Poon, and T. H. Meng. A mm-sized implantable power receiver with adaptive link compensation. In: Solid-State Circuits Conference-Digest of Technical Papers, 2009. ISSCC 2009. IEEE International, 2009.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parker, K. J., R. M. Lerner, and R. C. Waag. Attenuation of ultrasound: magnitude and frequency dependence for tissue characterization. Radiology 153(3):785–788, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Polikov, V. S., P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert. Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes. J. Neurosci. Methods 148(1):1–18, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Puers, R., R. Carta, and J. Thoné. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes. J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(5):054008, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rasmussen, K. B., et al. Proximity-based access control for implantable medical devices. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on Computer and Communications Security, ACM, 2009.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reitz, J. R., F. J. Milford, and R. W. Christy. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory. Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 2008.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
    Shiba, K., A. Morimasa, and H. Hirano. Design and development of low-loss transformer for powering small implantable medical devices. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 4(2):77–85, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sun, T., et al. A two-hop wireless power transfer system with an efficiency-enhanced power receiver for motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(11):3247–3254, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Surawicz, B., and T. Knilans. Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice E-Book: Adult and Pediatric. London: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Swain, P. Wireless capsule endoscopy. Gut 52(4):48–50, 2003.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tang, S. C. A low-operating-voltage wireless intermediate-range scheme for energy and signal transmission by magnetic coupling for implantable devices. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron. 3(1):242–251, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tang, S. C., F. A. Jolesz, and G. T. Clement. A wireless batteryless deep-seated implantable ultrasonic pulser-receiver powered by magnetic coupling. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(6):1211–1221, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tang, S. C., D. Vilkomerson, and T. Chilipka. Magnetically-powered implantable Doppler blood flow meter. In: Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2014 IEEE International. 2014.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tang, S. C., et al. Intermediate range wireless power transfer with segmented coil transmitters for implantable heart pumps. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 32(5):3844–3857, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vihvelin, H., et al. Class E RF amplifier design in an ultrasonic link for wireless power delivery to implanted medical devices. In: 2015 IEEE 28th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), 2015.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vilkomerson, D. and T. Chilipka. Implantable Doppler system for self-monitoring vascular grafts. In: Ultrasonics Symposium, 2004 IEEE, 2004.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Waters, B. H., et al. Powering a ventricular assist device (VAD) with the free-range resonant electrical energy delivery (FREE-D) system. Proc. IEEE 100(1):138–149, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Xin, W., G. Yan, and W. Wang. Study of a wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope. Int. J. Med. Robot. Comput. Assist. Surg. 6(1):113–122, 2010.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nakamoto, H. A passive UHF RFID tag LSI with 36.6% efficiency CMOS-only rectifier and current-mode demodulator in 0.35 μm FeRAM technology. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(11):1976–1984, 2006.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yoo, J., et al. A 5.2 mW self-configured wearable body sensor network controller and a 12 μW wirelessly powered sensor for a continuous health monitoring system. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1):178–188, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zargham, M., and P. G. Gulak. Fully integrated on-chip coil in 0.13 μm CMOS for wireless power transfer through biological media. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 9(2):259–271, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Center for Interventional Oncology, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical CenterNational Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering & National Cancer Institute Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations