Stochastic Resonance with Dynamic Compression Improves the Growth of Adult Chondrocytes in Agarose Gel Constructs
- 87 Downloads
Dynamic mechanical stimulation has been an effective method to improve the growth of tissue engineering cartilage constructs derived from immature cells. However, when more mature cell populations are used, results are often variable due to the differing responses of these cells to external stimuli. This can be especially detrimental in the case of mechanical loading. In previous studies, multi-modal mechanical stimulation in the form of stochastic resonance was shown to be effective at improving the growth of young bovine chondrocytes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of stochastic resonance on two groups of bovine chondrocytes, adult (> 30 month) and juvenile (~ 18 months). While the juvenile cells outperformed the adult cells in terms of their anabolic response to loading, combined mechanical loading for both age groups resulted in greater matrix synthesis compared to compressive loading alone. In the adult cells, potential pathological tissue formation was evident with the presence of cell clustering. However, the presence of broad-band mechanical vibrations (alone or with compressive loading) appeared to mitigate this response and allow these cells to attain a growth response similar to the juvenile, unstimulated cells. Therefore, the use of stochastic resonance appears to show promise as a method to improve the formation and properties of tissue engineered cartilage constructs, irrespective of cell age.
KeywordsCartilage tissue engineering Chondrocytes Mechanical stimulation Vibration Stochastic resonance Adult cells
Funding for this work was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.
Conflict of interest
- 7.Brandt, K., M. Doherty, and L. Lohmander. Composition and structure of articular cartilage. In: Osteoarthritis, edited by K. Brandt, M. Doherty, and L. Lohmander. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 110–111.Google Scholar
- 23.Lee, D. A., and M. M. Knight. Mechanical loading of chondrocytes embedded in 3D constructs: in vitro methods for assessment of morphological and metabolic response to compressive strain. Methods Mol. Med. 100:307–324, 2004.Google Scholar
- 24.Leung, M. K., L. I. Fessler, D. B. Greenberg, and J. H. Fessler. Separate amino and carboxyl procollagen peptidases in chick embryo tendon. J. Biol. Chem. 254:224–232, 1979.Google Scholar
- 26.Mauck, R. L., and M. A. Soltz. Functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage through dynamic loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose gels. J. Biomed. Eng. 122:252–260, 2000.Google Scholar
- 29.Quinn, T. M., P. Schmid, E. B. Hunziker, and A. J. Grodzinsky. Proteoglycan deposition around chondrocytes in agarose culture: construction of a physical and biological interface for mechanotransduction in cartilage. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2002.Google Scholar
- 32.Thonar, E., L. Lohmander, J. Kimura, S. Fellini, M. Yanagishita, and V. Hascall. Biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides on proteoglycans by chondrocytes from the swarm rat chondrosarcoma. J. Biol. Chem. 258:11564–11570, 1983.Google Scholar