Validity of Skin, Oral and Tympanic Temperatures During Exercise in the Heat: Effects of Wind and Sweat
This experiment investigates the validity of six thermometers with different measuring sensors, operation and site of application, to estimate core temperature (Tc) in comparison to an ingestible thermometric sensor based on quartz crystal technology. Measurements were obtained before, during and after exercise in the heat, controlling the presence of air-cooling and skin sweating. Twelve well-trained men swallowed the ingestible thermometer 6 h before the trial. After pre-exercise resting measurements at 20 °C, subjects entered a heat chamber held at 40 °C. Exercise in the heat consisted of 60 min of pedalling on cycle ergometer at 90% of the individually determined first ventilatory threshold. Results reveal that wind and skin sweat invalidate the use of skin infrared thermometry to estimate Tc during exercise in the heat. However, better Tc estimations were obtained in wind-restricted situations. We detected important differences between same-technology devices but different models and brands. In conclusion, there are important limitations to assess Tc accurately using non-invasive thermometers during and after exercise in the heat. Because some devices showed better validity than others did, we recommended using tympanic Braun®, and non-contact skin infrared Medisana® or Visiofocus® in wind-restricted and no sweat conditions to estimate Tc during exercise in the heat.
KeywordsThermometric Hyperthermia Rehydration Indoor exercise Heat illness Body temperature
We thank José Fajardo Rodríguez and Javier Sánchez Prieto for their excellent technical assistance with laboratory apparatus and assistance to the athletes. We also acknowledge the dedicated effort, commitment and professionalism of the selected group of athletes who took part in this research.
- 5.Casa, D. J., S. M. Becker, M. S. Ganio, C. M. Brown, S. W. Yeargin, M. W. Roti, J. Siegler, J. A. Blowers, N. R. Glaviano, R. A. Huggins, L. E. Armstrong, and C. M. Maresh. Validity of devices that assess body temperature during outdoor exercise in the heat. J Athl Train 42:333–342, 2007.Google Scholar
- 6.Casa, D. J., J. K. DeMartini, M. F. Bergeron, D. Csillan, E. R. Eichner, R. M. Lopez, M. S. Ferrara, K. C. Miller, F. O’Connor, M. N. Sawka, and S. W. Yeargin. National Athletic Trainers’ association position statement: Exertional heat illnesses. J Athl Train 50:986–1000, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.de Andrade Fernandes, A., P. R. dos Santos Amorim, C. J. Brito, A. G. de Moura, D. G. Moreira, C. M. A. Costa, M. Sillero-Quintana, and J. C. B. Marins. Measuring skin temperature before, during and after exercise: A comparison of thermocouples and infrared thermography. Physiol Meas 35:189–203, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Fernández-Elías, V. E., A. Martínez-Abellán, J. M. López-Gullón, R. Morán-Navarro, J. G. Pallarés, E. De la Cruz-Sánchez, and R. Mora-Rodriguez. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weight cutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports. PLoS ONE 9:e95336, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Irwin, R. S., C. M. Lilly, P. H. Mayo, and J. M. Rippe. Irwin and Rippe’s intensive care medicine. New York: Wolters Kluwer, 2018.Google Scholar
- 30.Quesada, J. I., M. R. Kunzler, and F. P. Carpes. Methodological aspects of infrared thermography in human assessment. In: Application of infrared thermography in sports science, edited by J. I. Quesada. Cham: Springer, 2017, pp. 49–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47410-6_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Quesada, J. I., N. Martínez, R. M. Cibrián, A. Psikuta, S. Annaheim, R. M. Rossi, J. M. Corberán, P. Pérez-Soriano, and R. Salvador. Effect of perspiration on skin temperature measurements by infrared thermography and contact thermometry during aerobic cycling. Infrared Phys Technol 72:68–76, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Racinais, S., J. M. Alonso, A. J. Coutts, A. D. Flouris, O. Girard, J. González-Alonso, C. Hausswirth, O. Jay, J. K. W. Lee, N. Mitchell, G. P. Nassis, L. Nybo, B. M. Pluim, B. Roelands, M. N. Sawka, J. E. Wingo, and J. D. Périard. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25:6–19, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Sawka, M. N., and K. B. Pandolf. Physical exercise in hot climates: physiology, performance, and biomedical issues. In: Medical aspects of harsh environments. Textbooks of military medicine, edited by K. Pandolf, and R. Burr. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army, 2001, pp. 87–133.Google Scholar