A Mechatronic System for Quantitative Application and Assessment of Massage-Like Actions in Small Animals
- 429 Downloads
Massage therapy has a long history and has been widely believed effective in restoring tissue function, relieving pain and stress, and promoting overall well-being. However, the application of massage-like actions and the efficacy of massage are largely based on anecdotal experiences that are difficult to define and measure. This leads to a somewhat limited evidence-based interface of massage therapy with modern medicine. In this study, we introduce a mechatronic device that delivers highly reproducible massage-like mechanical loads to the hind limbs of small animals (rats and rabbits), where various massage-like actions are quantified by the loading parameters (magnitude, frequency and duration) of the compressive and transverse forces on the subject tissues. The effect of massage is measured by the difference in passive viscoelastic properties of the subject tissues before and after mechanical loading, both obtained by the same device. Results show that this device is useful in identifying the loading parameters that are most conducive to a change in tissue mechanical properties, and can determine the range of loading parameters that result in sustained changes in tissue mechanical properties and function. This device presents the first step in our effort for quantifying the application of massage-like actions used clinically and measurement of their efficacy that can readily be combined with various quantitative measures (e.g., active mechanical properties and physiological assays) for determining the therapeutic and mechanistic effects of massage therapies.
KeywordsMedical devices Massage therapy Mechanics Viscoelasticity
Research reported in the publication was supported by Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Ohio State University and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number RO1AT004922. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Supplementary material (WMV 12,070 kb)
Supplementary material (WMV 16,167 kb)
- 2.Ariji, Y., A. Katsumata, N. Ogi, M. Izumi, S. Sakuma, Y. Iida, Y. Hiraiwa, K. Kurita, C. Igarashi, K. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, A. Takanishi, and E. Ariji. An oral rehabilitation robot for massaging the masseter and temporal muscles: a preliminary report. Oral Radiol. 25(1):53–59, 2009.Google Scholar
- 4.Beard, G., and E. Wood. Massage: Principles and Techniques. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1964.Google Scholar
- 7.Brunton, T. L., and F. W. Tunnicliffe. On the effects of the kneading of muscles upon the circulation, local and general. J Physiol. 17(5):364–377, 1894.Google Scholar
- 8.Buckle, J., A. Newberg, N. Wintering, E. Hutton, C. Lido, and J. T. Farrar. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow associated with the M technique-light massage therapy: a case series and longitudinal study using SPECT. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14(8):903–910, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Butterfield, T., Y. Zhao, S. Agarwal, F. Haq, and T. Best. Cyclic compressive loading facilitates recovery after eccentric exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 40(7):1289–1296, 2008.Google Scholar
- 10.Calvert, R. N. The Greek and Roman Baths. Massage Magazine. 2005.Google Scholar
- 11.Calvert, R. N. The History of Massage : An Illustrated Survey from Around the World. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2002.Google Scholar
- 20.Haas, C., T. A. Butterfield, Y. Zhao, X. Zhang, D. Jarjoura, and T. M. Best. Dose-dependency of massage-like compressive loading on recovery of active muscle properties following eccentric exercise: rabbit study with clinical relevance. Br. J. Sports Med. 47(2):83–88, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Haas, C., T. A. Butterfield, S. Abshire, Y. Zhao, X. Zhang, D. Jarjoura, and T. M. Best. Massage timing affects postexercise muscle recovery and inflammation in a rabbit model. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 45(6):1105–1112, 2012.Google Scholar
- 22.Hemmings, B., M. Smith, J. Graydon, and R. Dyson. Effects of massage on physiological restoration, perceived recovery, and repeated sports performance. Br. J. Sports Med. 34(2):109–114, 2000; discussion 115.Google Scholar
- 24.Hippocrates, A. F. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. New York: W. Wood and Company, 1886.Google Scholar
- 26.Ironson, G., T. Field, F. Scafidi, M. Hashimoto, M. Kumar, A. Kumar, A. Price, A. Goncalves, I. Burman, C. Tetenman, R. Patarca, and M. A. Fletcher. Massage therapy is associated with enhancement of the immune system’s cytotoxic capacity. Int. J. Neurosci. 84(1–4):205–217, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Loerakker, S., A. Stekelenburg, G. J. Strijkers, J. J. M. Rijpkema, F. P. T. Baaijens, D. L. Bader, K. Nicolay, and C. W. J. Oomens. Temporal effects of mechanical loading on deformation-induced damage in skeletal muscle tissue. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38(8):2577–2587, 2010.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Marti-Ibanez, F. The epic of medicine. Rev. Cubana Med. 1:99–116, 1962 contd.Google Scholar
- 31.Massage and Bodywork. Greek Medicine 2010; http://www.greekmedicine.net/therapies/Massage_and_Bodywork.html.
- 32.Moraska, A., C. Chandler, A. Edmiston-Schaetzel, G. Franklin, E. L. Calenda, and B. Enebo. Comparison of a targeted and general massage protocol on strength, function, and symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized pilot study. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14(3):259–267, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Ouchi, Y., T. Kanno, H. Okada, E. Yoshikawa, T. Shinke, S. Nagasawa, K. Minoda, and H. Doi. Changes in cerebral blood flow under the prone condition with and without massage. Neurosci Lett. 407(2):131–135, 2006.Google Scholar
- 35.So, C. S., J. V. Sarath, R. A. Giolli, and S. Gollapudi. The effect of thermal massage on human T-Lymphocyte and natural killer cell function. Internet J. Altern. Med. 6(1), 2008. doi: 10.5580/317/.
- 37.Veith, I. Huang Ti nei ching su wên. The Yellow Emperor’s classic of internal medicine. New ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.Google Scholar
- 43.Zeng, H., T. Butterfield, S. Agarwal, F. Haq, T. Best, and Y. Zhao. An engineering approach for quantitative analysis of the lengthwise strokes in massage therapies. J. Med. Devices Trans. ASME 2(4):041003, 2008.Google Scholar