Gathering and Hunting Farmers; Farming Gatherers and Hunters: So, What?
From the point of view of a “Bantu” who grew up gathering forest food and farming fields in Africa south of the Zambezi, Kate de Luna’s masterful Collecting Food, Cultivating People is about the obvious. It is a detailed rendition of the daily strategies that are utilized to feed families and communities. In my home area, the landscape is limitless but, based on situation, the activities performed on it are segregated and at the same time integrated. Landscape among the Shona is a single expansive entity—zienda nakuenda—whose stretch is endless. And yet, it is culturally partitioned into forests and fields. Fields become forests, and forests become fields as practices of food procurement are optimized to allow soils to recover and so on. The landscape is the source of livelihoods and subsistence for people—farmers, hunters, gatherers, and everyone. Regardless of label, people collect fruit, honey, vegetables, and mushrooms from the forest. Food too is collected from...
- Chimhundu, H., & Mangoya, E. (2001). Duramazwi guru reChiShona. Harare: College Press in conjunction with the African Languages Research Institute, University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
- Chirikure, S. (2018). Early metallurgy and surplus without states in Africa south of the Sahara. Tagunden des landesmuseums fur Vorgeschite Halle, 18, 1–14.Google Scholar
- Chirikure, S. (2019). New perspectives on the political economy of Great Zimbabwe. Journal of Archaeological Research, (in press).Google Scholar
- Chirikure, S., Nyamushosho, R. T., Chimhundu, H., Dandara, C., Pamburai, H. H., & Manyanga, M. (2017). Concept and knowledge revision in the post-colony: Mukwerera, the practice of asking for rain amongst the Shona of southern Africa. In M. Manyanga & S. Chirikure (Eds.), Archives, Objects, Places and Landscapes: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Decolonised Zimbabwean Pasts (pp. 14–55). Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG.Google Scholar
- Daneel, M. L. (1970). The God of the Matopo Hills: An essay on the Mwari cult in Rhodesia. The Hague: Mouton & Co.Google Scholar
- Fabian, J. (1983). Time and the other: How anthropology makes its object. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Gelfand, M. (1959). Shona ritual: With special reference to the Chaminuka cult. Cape Town: Juta.Google Scholar
- Huffman, T. N. (2000). Mapungubwe and the origins of the Zimbabwe culture. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 14–29. https://doi.org/10.2307/3858043.
- Manyanga, M. (2007). Resilient landscapes: Socio-environmetal dynamics in the Shashe-Limpopo Basin, southern Zimbabwe c. AD 800 to the present. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Uppsaliensis.Google Scholar
- Manyanga, M., & Chirikure, S. (2017). Archives, objects, places and landscapes: the multidisciplinary and decolonising imperative. In M. Manyanga & S. Chirikure (Eds.), Archives, Objects, Places and Landscapes: Multidisciplinary approaches to Decolonised Zimbabwean pasts (pp. 1–11). Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG.Google Scholar
- McIntosh, S. K. (Ed.). (1999). Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Mudenge, S. I. G. (1988). A political history of Munhumutapa c 1400–1902. Harare: James Currey.Google Scholar
- Ndoro, W., Chirikure, S., & Deacon, J. (Eds.). (2017). Managing heritage in Africa: Who cares? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Prins, G. (1980). The hidden hippopotamus: Reappraisal in African history: The early colonial experience in western Zambia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Pwiti, G. (1996). Continuity and change: an archaeological study of farming communities in northern Zimbabwe AD 500–1700. Uppsala: Societa Archaeologica Uppsaliensis.Google Scholar
- Pwiti, G., Nhamo, A., Katsamudanga, S., & Segobye, A. (2007). Makasva: Archaeological heritage, rainmaking and healing in Southern Africa with special reference to Eastern Zimbabwe. Zimbabwea, 9, 103–111.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, P. R., & Pikirayi, I. (Eds.). (2016). Community archaeology and heritage in Africa: Decolonizing practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Scott, J. C. (2010). The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Sharer, R. J. (1992). The Preclassic origin of lowland Maya states. In E. Danien & R. J. Sharer (Eds.), New theories on the ancient Maya (Vol. 3, pp. 131–136). Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
- Smith, J.M. (2006). Climate change and agropastoral sustainability in the Shashe/Limpopo River Basin from AD 900, PhD dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand. Google Scholar
- Vansina, J. (1990). Paths in the rainforests: Toward a history of political tradition in equatorial Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Pres.Google Scholar
- Wolf, E. R. (1982). Europe and the people without history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar