Advertisement

Low-cost rapid prototyping of glass microfluidic devices using a micromilling technique

  • 544 Accesses

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

A method is proposed for rapid prototyping of glass microfluidic devices utilizing a commercial micromilling machine. In the proposed approach, micromilling is performed with the glass substrates immersed in cool water, which could efficiently remove debris and increase the life of milling tools. We also investigate the effects of spindle speed, feed rate, cutting depth, cooling mode, and tool type on finished channel geometries, bottom surface roughness, and burring along the channel sides. It was found that low cutting depths, high spindle speeds and low feed rate produce smoother channels. Several functional microfluidic devices were demonstrated with this rapid prototyping method. The results confirm that the proposed micromilling technique represents a viable solution for the rapid and economic fabrication of glass-based microfluidic chips. We believe that this method will greatly improve the accessibility of glass microfluidic devices to researchers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Akashi T, Yoshimura Y (2006) Deep reactive ion etching of borosilicate glass using an anodically bonded silicon wafer as an etching mask. J Micromech Microeng 16:1051

  2. Allen PB, Chiu DT (2008) Calcium-assisted glass-to-glass bonding for fabrication of glass microfluidic devices. Anal Chem 80:7153–7157

  3. Arif M, Rahman M, San WY (2011) Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process. J Manuf Process 13:50–59

  4. Bifano TG, Dow T, Scattergood R (1991) Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials. J Eng Ind 113:184–189

  5. Bu M, Melvin T, Ensell GJ, Wilkinson JS, Evans AG (2004) A new masking technology for deep glass etching and its microfluidic application. Sens Actuators A Phys 115:476–482

  6. Bulushev E, Bessmeltsev V, Dostovalov A, Goloshevsky N, Wolf A (2016) High-speed and crack-free direct-writing of microchannels on glass by an IR femtosecond laser. Opt Laser Eng 79:39–47

  7. Carugo D, Lee JY, Pora A, Browning RJ, Capretto L, Nastruzzi C, Stride E (2016) Facile and cost-effective production of microscale PDMS architectures using a combined micromilling-replica moulding (µMi-REM) technique. Biomed Microdevices 18:4

  8. Chen P-C, Pan C-W, Lee W-C, Li K-M (2014a) An experimental study of micromilling parameters to manufacture microchannels on a PMMA substrate. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 71:1623–1630

  9. Chen P-C, Pan C-W, Lee W-C, Li K-M (2014b) Optimization of micromilling microchannels on a polycarbonate substrate. Int J Precis Eng Man 15:149–154

  10. Cheng J-Y, Yen M-H, Wei C-W, Chuang Y-C, Young T-H (2005) Crack-free direct-writing on glass using a low-power UV laser in the manufacture of a microfluidic chip. J Micromech Microeng 15:1147–1156

  11. Coltro WKT, Piccin E, da Silva JAF, do Lago CL, Carrilho E (2007) A toner-mediated lithographic technology for rapid prototyping of glass microchannels. Lab Chip 7:931–934

  12. de Santana PP et al (2013) Fabrication of glass microchannels by xurography for electrophoresis applications. Analyst 138:1660–1664

  13. Guckenberger DJ, de Groot TE, Wan AM, Beebe DJ, Young EW (2015) Micromilling: a method for ultra-rapid prototyping of plastic microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 15:2364–2378

  14. Huang C-Y, Kuo C-H, Hsiao W-T, Huang K-C, Tseng S-F, Chou C-P (2012) Glass biochip fabrication by laser micromachining and glass-molding process. J Mater Process Tech 212:633–639

  15. Hupert ML, Guy WJ, Llopis SD, Shadpour H, Rani S, Nikitopoulos DE, Soper SA (2007) Evaluation of micromilled metal mold masters for the replication of microchip electrophoresis devices. Microfluid Nanofluid 3:1–11

  16. Hwang D, Choi T, Grigoropoulos C (2004) Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 79:605–612

  17. Iliescu C, Taylor H, Avram M, Miao J, Franssila S (2012) A practical guide for the fabrication of microfluidic devices using glass and silicon. Biomicrofluidics 6:016505

  18. Ju J, Lim S, Seok J, Kim S-m (2015) A method to fabricate low-cost and large area vitreous carbon mold for glass molded microstructures. Int J Precis Eng Man 16:287–291

  19. Lam P, Wynne KJ, Wnek GE (2002) Surface-tension-confined microfluidics. Langmuir 18:948–951

  20. Lin C-H, Lee G-B, Lin Y-H, Chang G-L (2001) A fast prototyping process for fabrication of microfluidic systems on soda-lime glass. J Micromech Microeng 11:726

  21. Neo WK, Kumar AS, Rahman M (2012) A review on the current research trends in ductile regime machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:465–480

  22. Nge PN, Rogers CI, Woolley AT (2013) Advances in microfluidic materials, functions, integration and applications. Chem Rev 113:2550–2583

  23. Nieto D, Delgado T, Flores-Arias MT (2014) Fabrication of microchannels on soda-lime glass substrates with a Nd: YVO 4 laser. Opt Laser Eng 63:11–18

  24. Nieto D, Couceiro R, Aymerich M, Lopez-Lopez R, Abal M, Flores-Arias MT (2015) A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture. Colloids Surf B 134:363–369

  25. Park J, Lee N-E, Lee J, Park J, Park H (2005) Deep dry etching of borosilicate glass using SF 6 and SF 6/Ar inductively coupled plasmas. Microelectron Eng 82:119–128

  26. Ren K, Zhou J, Wu H (2013) Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication. Accounts Chem Res 46:2396–2406

  27. Ren K, Chen Y, Wu H (2014) New materials for microfluidics in biology. Curr Opin Biotech 25:78–85

  28. Rodriguez I, Spicar-Mihalic P, Kuyper CL, Fiorini GS, Chiu DT (2003) Rapid prototyping of glass microchannels. Anal Chim Acta 496:205–215

  29. Stjernström M, Roeraade J (1998) Method for fabrication of microfluidic systems in glass. J Micromech Microeng 8:33–38

  30. Tseng S-F, Chen M-F, Hsiao W-T, Huang C-Y, Yang C-H, Chen Y-S (2014) Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies. Opt Laser Eng 57:58–63

  31. Wilson ME, Kota N, Kim Y, Wang Y, Stolz DB, LeDuc PR, Ozdoganlar OB (2011) Fabrication of circular microfluidic channels by combining mechanical micromilling and soft lithography. Lab Chip 11:1550–1555

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 61771078 and 61271161), the Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (no. cstc2017jcyjB0182) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (no. 106112016CDJXZ238826).

Author information

Correspondence to Gang Li.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 834 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (WMV 649 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (WMV 649 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ku, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, X. et al. Low-cost rapid prototyping of glass microfluidic devices using a micromilling technique. Microfluid Nanofluid 22, 82 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-018-2104-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Microfabrication
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Micromilling
  • Glass microfluidic device