Immunochromatographic thread-based test platform for diagnosis of infectious diseases

Research Paper
  • 131 Downloads

Abstract

Patterning is an important step in fabrication of multiplexed microfluidic devices. Various approaches including cutting, photolithography, wax-printing, plotting and etching have been developed and tested. Recently, using threads has emerged as a convenient and low-cost approach for fabrication of microfluidic devices. We explored the application of threads in combination with nitrocellulose membrane to fabricate multi-channel immunochromatographic diagnostic devices. Microfluidic channels were made using hydrophilic threads and nitrocellulose membrane strips. Household sewing needle was used to weave hydrophilic thread into desired patterns through a double-sided mounting tape. Glass fibre discs were used as conjugate pads while nitrocellulose membrane was used for immobilisation of capture antibodies. Patterned threads were linked to nitrocellulose membrane strips by overlapping so that reagents flowing through threads were eventually transferred to the membrane. The design was tested using IgG, H. pylori and Hepatitis B surface antigen. Continuous flow was observed from hydrophilic threads to the nitrocellulose membrane, and a positive signal was visualised on the membrane within 5 min of sample application. The observed limit of detection ranged between 30 and 300 ng/ml for H. pylori and Hepatitis B, respectively. Using thread and tape offers a promising alternative for patterning of simple, low-cost multiplexed microfluidic diagnostic devices with potential point-of-care applications in resource-limited settings.

Keywords

Immunochromatographic Thread-based diagnostics Infectious diseases Multiplex microfluidic devices Point-of-care Low-cost diagnostics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the technical staff at NM-AIST for their cooperation and support during execution of this work. This work was supported by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) through the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Sciences and Technology (NM-AIST) Graduate Scholarship.

Authors’ contributions

MS and JB developed the research plan. MS and DM carried out research work with the help of JB. MS interpreted the data and prepared the manuscript. DM and JB edited and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abe K, Suzuki K, Citterio D (2008) Inkjet-printed microfluidic multianalyte chemical sensing paper. Anal Chem 80:6928–6934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acestor N, Cooksey R, Newton PN et al (2012) Mapping the aetiology of non-malarial febrile illness in Southeast Asia through a systematic review-terra incognita impairing treatment policies. PLoS ONE 7:e44269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ballerini DR, Li X, Shen W (2011) Flow control concepts for thread-based microfluidic devices. Biomicrofluidics 5:014105.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3567094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D (2013) When fever is not malaria. Lancet Glob Health 1:e11–e12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boisen ML, Oottamasathien D, Jones AB, Millett MM, Nelson DS, Bornholdt ZA et al (2015) Development of prototype filovirus recombinant antigen immunoassays. J Infect Dis 212(Suppl. 2):S359–S367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruzewicz DA, Reches M, Whitesides GM (2008) Low-cost printing of poly (dimethylsiloxane) barriers to define microchannels in paper. Anal Chem 80:3387–3392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrilho E, Martinez AW, Whitesides GM (2009) Understanding wax printing: a simple micropatterning process for paper-based microfluidics. Anal Chem 81:7091–7095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fenton EM, Mascarenas MR, Lopez GP, Sibbett SS (2009) Multiplex lateral-flow test strips fabricated by two-dimensional shaping. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foster D, Cox-Singh J, Mohamad DSA, Krishna S, Chin PP, Singh B (2014) Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J 201413:60.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-60 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gessler F, Pagel-Wiederb S, Avondetc M, Bfhnela H (2007) Evaluation of lateral flow assays for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin type A and their application in laboratory diagnosis of botulism. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 57:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hossain SMZ, Ozimok C, Sicard C, Aguirre SD, Ali MM, Li YF, Brennan JD (2012) Multiplexed paper test strip for quantitative bacterial detection. Anal Bioanal Chem 403(6):1567–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jimenez A, Rees-Channer RR, Perera R, Gamboa D, Chiodini PL, González IJ, Mayor A, Ding XC (2017) Analytical sensitivity of current best-in-class malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Malar J 16:128.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-1780-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kamphee H, Chaiprasert A, Prammananan T, Wiriyachaiporn N, Kanchanatavee A, Dharakul T (2015) Rapid molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by PCR-nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay. PLoS ONE 10:e0137791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kiemde F, Spijker R, Mens PF, Tinto H, Boele M, Schallig HDFH (2016) Etiologies of non-malaria febrile episodes in children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 21(8):943–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Law JWF, Ab Mutalib NS, Chan KG, Lee LH (2014) Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations. Front Microbiol 5:770Google Scholar
  16. Li X, Tian J, Shen W (2010) Thread as a versatile material for low-cost microfluidic diagnostics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lu Y, Shi W, Jiang L, Qin J, Lin B (2009) Rapid prototyping of paper-based microfluidics with wax for low-cost, portable bioassay. Electrophoresis. 30:1497–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahende C, Ngasala B, Lusingu J et al (2014) Aetiology of acute febrile episodes in children attending Korogwe District Hospital in north-eastern Tanzania. PLoS ONE 9:e104197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Butte MJ, Whitesides GM (2007) Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low volume, portable bioassays. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 46(8):1318–1320.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200603817 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Whitesides GM (2008) Three-dimensional microfluidic devices fabricated in layered paper and tape. PNAS 105(50):19563–19564.  https://doi.org/10.1073/iti05008105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsuura K, Chen K, Tsai C, Li W, Asano Y, Naruse K, Cheng C (2014) Paper-based diagnostic devices for evaluating the quality of human sperm. Microfluid Nanofluid 2014(16):857–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. May K (1991) Home tests to monitor fertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:2000–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen K, Yu WL, Kelly L, Bermudez R, Renteria T, Dajer A et al (2008) Development of a lateral flow assay for rapid detection of bovine antibody to Anaplasma marginale. J Immunoass Immunochem 29:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nilghaz A, Zhang L, Li M, Ballerin DR, Shen W (2014) Understanding thread properties for red blood cell antigen assays: weak ABO blood typing. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:22209–22215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Okiro EA, Snow RW (2010) The relationship between reported fever and Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children. Malar J 9:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peeling RW, Holmes KK, Mabey D, Ronald A (2006) Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward. Sex Transm Infect 82(Suppl 5):v1–v6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Posthuma-Trumpie GA, Korf J, van Amerongen AA (2009) Lateral flow (immuno) assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:569–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reches M, Mirica KA, Dasgupta R, Dickey MD, Butte MJ, Whitesides GM (2010) Thread as a matrix for biomedical assays. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2(6):1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rohrman BA, Leautaud V, Molyneux E, Richards-Kortum RR (2012) A lateral flow assay for quantitative detection of amplified HIV-1 RNA. PLoS ONE 7:e45611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shankar BP, Manjunatha Prabhu BH, Chandan S, Ranjith D, Shivakumar V (2010) Rapid methods for detection of veterinary drug residues in meat. Vet World 3(5):241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma S, Zapatero-Rodríguez J, Estrela P, O’Kennedy R (2015) Point-of-care diagnostics in low resource settings: present status and future role of microfluidics. Biosensors 5:577–601.  https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030577 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shyu RH, Shyu HF, Liu HW, Tang SS (2002) Colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic assay for detection of ricin. Toxicon 40:255–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00193-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sicard C, Gien C, Aubie B, Wallace D, Jahanshahi-Anbuhi S, Pennings K, Daigger GT, Pelton R, Brennan JD, Fillipe CD (2015) Tools for water quality monitoring and mapping using paper-based sensors and cell phones. Water Res 2015(70):360–369.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Toldra F, Reig M (2006) Methods for rapid detection of chemical and veterinary drug residues in animal foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:482–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Urdea M, Penny LA, Olmsted SS, Giovanni MY, Kaspar P, Shepherd A, Wilson P, Dahl CA, Buchsbaum S, Moeller G, Burgess DCH (2006) Requirements for high impact diagnostics in the developing world. Nature 444(Suppl. 1):73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weng X, Gaur G, Neethirajan S (2016) Rapid detection of food allergens by microfluidics ELISA-based optical sensor. Biosensors 6:24.  https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zasada AA, Formińska K, Zacharczuk K, Jacob D, Grunow R (2015) Comparison of eleven commercially available rapid tests for detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Lett Appl Microbiol 60:409–413.  https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.12392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou G, Mao X, Juncker D (2012) Immunochromatographic assay on thread. Anal Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac301082d Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Health and Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences and BioengineeringNelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  2. 2.Zonal Veterinary Centre, Central ZoneDodomaTanzania
  3. 3.Laboratory Sciences DepartmentNational Institute for Medical Research, Tanga CentreTangaTanzania

Personalised recommendations