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Laser-induced fluorescence visualization of ion transport in a pseudo-porous capacitive deionization microstructure

Abstract

In this paper, a microfluidic experimental set-up is introduced to study the ionic transport in an artificial capacitive deionization (CDI) cell. CDI is a promising desalination technique, which relies on the application of an external electric field and high surface area porous electrodes for ion separation and storage. Photolithography and deep reactive ion etching were used to fabricate a micro-CDI channel with pseudo-porous electrodes on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Laser-induced fluorescence was performed using cationic Sulforhodamine B (SRB) fluorescent dye to measure ion concentration within the bulk solution and more importantly, within the porous electrodes during the desalination process, with an average normalized root mean square deviation of 8.2 %. Using this set-up, electromigration of ions within the electrode was visualized and the effect of applied electric potential on bulk solution concentration distribution is quantified. In addition, SRB and Fluorescein were used together to visualize anion and cation concentrations simultaneously. The method presented in this study can be used for solution concentrations up to approximately 0.7 mM. The ionic concentration profiles obtained by this approach can be used to test and validate the existing electrosorption models, and pseudo-porous electrodes can be modified to observe the effects of pore size, shape and distribution on electrosorption performance. Furthermore, with proper modifications, the microfabricated structure and experimental set-up can be used for CDI-on-a-chip applications and bio-separation devices.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr. Myeongsub Kim and Dr. Tae Jin Kim for their help in LIF visualization and microscopy set-up. This research was funded by The University of Texas start-up funds and The University of Texas System STARS.

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Correspondence to Onur N. Demirer.

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Demirer, O.N., Hidrovo, C.H. Laser-induced fluorescence visualization of ion transport in a pseudo-porous capacitive deionization microstructure. Microfluid Nanofluid 16, 109–122 (2014) doi:10.1007/s10404-013-1228-3

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Keywords

  • Capacitive deionization
  • Laser-induced fluorescence
  • Visualization
  • Electrosorption