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Ultrasonographic assessment of organs other than the heart in patients with heart failure

  • Kazuhiro YamamotoEmail author
  • Yoshiharu Kinugasa
  • Shinobu Sugihara
  • Natsuko Mukai-Yatagai
  • Masahiko Kato
Review Article–Cardiology
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

The number of patients with heart failure has been dramatically increasing in Japan in association with aging of the society. This phenomenon is referred to as a heart failure pandemic. The fundamental origin of heart failure is cardiac dysfunction. Echocardiography is widely used to assess cardiac function, as well as to diagnose heart diseases that cause cardiac dysfunction. However, the severity of heart failure is not necessarily correlated with that of cardiac dysfunction. This is partly explained by the fact that heart failure induces dysfunction of organs other than the heart through hemodynamic deterioration and neurohumoral changes. In addition, one of the characteristics of patients with heart failure, particularly elderly patients, is the presence of numerous comorbidities. Symptoms of heart failure are not specific, and assessment of cardiac function, particularly left ventricular diastolic function, has not been established. Thus, ultrasonographic assessment of organs other than the heart helps the diagnosis of heart failure, assessment of the severity of heart failure, and development of our understanding of the pathophysiology in each patient. This review summarizes current knowledge about the usefulness of ultrasonographic assessment of organs other than the heart in heart failure.

Keywords

Liver Kidney Intestinal tract Diaphragm Lung 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Takuya Ishisugi, MS, and Mari Miyagi, MS, for their assistance.

Funding

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant numbers 16K09435, 17K00855, 18K10671, and 19K08582, and the Japan Heart Foundation (Tokyo, Japan).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.

Ethical statements

All the procedures followed were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions.

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Copyright information

© The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Yamamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshiharu Kinugasa
    • 1
  • Shinobu Sugihara
    • 2
  • Natsuko Mukai-Yatagai
    • 1
  • Masahiko Kato
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of MedicineTottori UniversityYonagoJapan
  2. 2.Health Service CenterShimane UniversityMatsueJapan

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