Advertisement

A comparative study of shear wave elastography in the evaluation of undescended and retractile testes in a pediatric population

  • Onder Turna
  • Deniz Alis
Original Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the evaluation of undescended and retractile testes (RT) in a pediatric population.

Methods

We prospectively evaluated a total of 37 undescended testes (UDT), 15 RT, and 56 normal testes using SWE. The stiffness values were recorded for speed (m/s) and elasticity (kPa), and the mean stiffness values of groups were compared with each other.

Results

The mean stiffness values of the UDT (13.80 ± 4.14 kPa, 2.14 ± 0.29 m/s) were higher than the mean SWE values of the normal testes (7.44 ± 2.11 kPa, 1.57 ± 0.21 m/s) (p < 0.0001). The mean stiffness values of the RT (9.64 ± 3.71 kPa, 1.75 ± 0.35 m/s) exceeded those of the normal testes (p = 0.004 for elasticity and p = 0.02 for speed). The mean stiffness value of the UDT was higher than the retractile ones (p < 0.0001 for elasticity and speed).

Conclusion

The higher stiffness values of the UDT and the RT compared to normal testes are likely reflective of underlying pathological alterations; hence, we suggest that SWE might serve as a valuable adjunct for the management of UDT and RT by assessing and monitoring ultrastructural changes.

Keywords

Shear wave elastography Undescended testes Retractile testes Elasticity Stiffness 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Deniz Alis and Onder Turna have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. 1.
    Guibal A, Renosi G, Rode A, et al. Shear wave elastography: an accurate technique to stage liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2016;97:91–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Magri F, Chytiris S, Capelli V, et al. Shear wave elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules: feasibility in the case of coexistent chronic autoimmune Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol. 2012;76:137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krouskop TA, Wheeler TM, Kallel F, et al. Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression. Ultrason Imaging. 1998;20:260–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ucar AK, Alis D, Samanci C, et al. A preliminary study of shear wave elastography for the evaluation of unilateral palpable undescended testes. Eur J Radiol. 2017;86:248–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bayramoglu Z, Kandemirli SG, Comert RG, et al. Shear wave elastography evaluation in pediatric testicular microlithiasis: a comparative study. J Med Ultrason. 2018;45:281–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kocaoglu C, Durmaz, Sivri M. Shear wave elastography evaluation of testes with non-communicating hydrocele in infants and toddlers: a preliminary study. J Pediatr Urol. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.03.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dikici AS, Er ME, Alis D, et al. Is there any difference between seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors on shear wave elastography? A preliminary study. J Ultrasound Med. 2018;35:2575–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barthold JS, Gonzalez R. The epidemiology of congenital cryptorchidism, testicular ascent and orchiopexy. J Urol. 2003;170:2396–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elder JS. The undescended testis. Hormonal and surgical management. Surg Clin North Am. 1988;68:983–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wyllie GG. The retractile testis. Med J Aust. 1984;140:403–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolon TF, Herndon CD, Baker LA, et al. Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014;192:337–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leissner J, Filipas D, Wolf HK. The undescended testes: consideration and impact on fertility. Br J Urol. 1999;83:885–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han SW, Lee T, Kim JH, et al. Pathological difference between retractile and cryptorchid testes. J Urol. 1999;162:878–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hadziselimovic F, Herzog B, Buser M. Development of cryptorchid testes. Eur J Pediatr. 1987;147:8–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tekgul S, Riedmiller H, Dogan HS (2013) EAU guidelines on paediatric urology. In: EAU annual congress, Milan, 2013.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee PA, Coughlin MT, Bellinger MF. No relationship of testicular size at orchiopexy with fertility in men who previously had unilateral cryptorchidism. J Urol. 2001;166:236–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Noh PH, Cooper CS, Snyder HM, et al. Testicular volume does not predict germ cell count in patients with cryptorchidism. J Urol. 2000;163:593–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shin HJ, Lee YS, Yoon H, et al. Testicular volume and elasticity changes in young children with undescended testes. Med Ultrason. 2017;19:380–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agarwal PK, Diaz M, Elder JS. Retractile testis—is it really a normal variant? J Urol. 2006;175:96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goede J, Van der Voort-Doedens LM, Sijstermans K, et al. The volume of retractile testes. J Urol. 2011;186:2050–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caucci M, Barbatelli G, Cinti S. The retractile testis can be a cause of adult infertility. Fertil Steril. 1997;68:1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jedrzejewski G, Wozniak MM, Madej T, et al. The differences in testicular volumes in boys 8–36 months old with undescended, retractile and hydrocele testis—usefulness of scrotal screening ultrasound. Early Human Dev. 2012;88:185–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nistal M, Paniagua R. Infertility in adult males with retractile testes. Fertil Steril. 1984;41:395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bae JJ, Kim BS, Chung SK. Long-term outcomes of retractile testis. Korean J Urol. 2012;3:649–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    La Scala GC, Ein SH. Retractile testes: an outcome analysis on 150 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1014–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyIstanbul Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research HospitalHalkali, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations