Chelonid Alphaherpesvirus 5 DNA in Fibropapillomatosis-Affected Chelonia mydas
- 93 Downloads
Fibropapillomatosis is a panzootic and chronic disease among Chelonia mydas—usually associated with anthropogenic impacts. This study contributes towards understanding fibropapillomatosis implications for C. mydas populations as a reflector of environmental quality, via prevalence and histological, molecular and blood analyses at a World Heritage site in southern Brazil. Sixty-three juvenile C. mydas (31.3–54.5 cm curved carapace length–CCL) were sampled during two years. Eighteen specimens (~ 29%) had tumours (which were biopsied), while 45 had none. Degenerative changes in the epidermis and Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 DNA detection with three variants support a herpesvirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that variants A and B were similar to a herpesvirus lineage from the Atlantic group, but variant C was similar to a herpesvirus from the eastern Pacific lineage and represents the first published case for marine turtles off Brazil. Significantly lower levels of seven blood parameters, but greater numbers of eosinophils, were observed in tumour-afflicted animals. These observations were attributed to metabolism efficiencies and/or differences in diet associated with temporal-recruitment bias and disease development, and greater non-specific immune stimulation. While most animals had adequate body condition independent of disease, longer-term studies are required to elucidate any protracted population effects.
KeywordsGreen turtles Blood parameters Molecular analysis Histology Diseases Environmental sentinel
We thank the research team from LEC/UFPR, Associação MarBrasil, Fundação Pró-Tamar, Karumbe, especially Daniel Gonzalez, Gabriela Velez-Rubio, Gustavo Martinez Souza and Ignacio Bruno, for their assistance with C. mydas sampling, and Alcides Branco, Daniela Nóbrega and Giovana Balarin for laboratory assistance. Dr. Thierry Work is thanked for reviewing an earlier draft of the paper and for his helpful discussions.
This study was funded by Petrobras (REBIMAR), Fundação Araucária/ Fundação Grupo Boticário (Projeto ProTartas), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior grant (99999.005563/2014-03) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico grant (302816/2014-3).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Aguirre AA, Lutz PL (2004) Marine turtles as sentinels of ecosystem health: is fibropapillomatosis an indicator?. EcoHealth 1: 275–283Google Scholar
- Diniz GS, Barbarino E, Lourenço SO (2012) On the chemical profile of marine organisms from the coastal subtropical environments: gross composition and nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors. In: Marcelli, M (ed) Oceanography. Intech, Rijeka, pp 297–320Google Scholar
- Domiciano IG, Domit C, Bracarense APFRL (2017) The Green turtle Chelonia mydas as a marine and coastal environmental sentinels: anthropogenic activities and diseases. Semina 38: 3417–3434Google Scholar
- Herbst LH, Jacobson ER (2003) Practical approaches for studying sea turtle health and disease. In: The Biology of Sea Turtles, Volume II, Lutz PL, Musick JA, Wyneken J (editors), Florida: CRC press, 385–410Google Scholar
- IUCN (2018) The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1 (cited in 07 March 2018). Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/
- Morrison CL, Iwanowicz L, Work TM, Fahsbender E, Breitbart M, Adams C, Iwanowicz D, Sanders L, Ackermann M, Cornman RS (2018) Genomic evolution, recombination, and inter-strain diversity of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from Florida and Hawaii green sea turtles with fibropapillomatosis. PeerJ 6: e4386. Doi: 10.7717/peerj.4386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Proietti MC, Reisser JW, Kinas PG (2007) Avaliação preliminar da ocorrência de fibropapilomatose em tartarugas-verde (Chelonia mydas) incidentes na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo. In Proceedings of the 12nd Congresso Latino-Americano de Ciências do Mar (COLACMAR)’, (AOCEANO: Florianópolis), pp 1–3Google Scholar
- Quackenbush SL, Casey RN, Murcek RJ, Paul TA, Work TM, Limpus CJ, Chaves A, duToit L, Perez JV, Aguirre AA, Spraker TR, Horrocks JA, Vermeer LA, Balasz GH, Casey JW (2001) Quantitative analysis of herpesvirus sequences from normal tissue and fibropapillomas of marine turtles with real-time PCR. Virology 287: 105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramirez AC (2017) Investigation into Chelonid Alphaherpesvirus 5 infection and fibropapillomatosis in the Pacific green turtle (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and the olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) in the Pacific of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Dissertation at Faculties of Veterinary Medicine and Medicine of the Justus Liebig University Giessen.Google Scholar
- Saitou, N., and Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4: 406-425Google Scholar
- Spotila JR (2004) Sea turtles: a complete guide to their biology, behavior, and conservation. 1st ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press and Oakwood ArtsGoogle Scholar
- Stacy NI, Boylan S (2014) Clinical pathology of sea turtles. http://www.seaturtleguardian.org/clinical-pathology-of-sea-turtles. Accessed July 4, 2018
- Whyte MP, Walkenhorst DA, Fedde KN, Henthorn PS, Hill C (1996) Hypophosphatasia: levels of bone alkaline phosphatase immunoreactivity in serum reflect disease severity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 81: 2142–2148Google Scholar
- Zwarg T, Rossi S, Sanches TC, Cesar MO, Werneck MR, Matushima ER (2014) Hematological and histopathological evaluation of wildlife green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without fibropapilloma from the north coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34: 682–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar