Advertisement

EcoHealth

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 317–329 | Cite as

Environmental Health Promotion of a Contaminated Site in Mexico

  • Urinda Alamo-Hernández
  • Ana Cecilia Espinosa-García
  • Hilda Rangel-Flores
  • Paulina Farías
  • David Hernández-Bonilla
  • Marlene Cortez-Lugo
  • Fernando Díaz-Barriga
  • Nelly Flores
  • Sandra Rodríguez-Dozal
  • Horacio Riojas–RodríguezEmail author
Original Contribution
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

Entangled in complex ecological, sociocultural, and economic systems, current environmental health problems require integrated participatory approaches. Alpuyeca, a semi-urban, highly marginalized community in South-Central Mexico burdened by lead and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination, dengue fever, and intestinal diseases, illustrates this. Its residents are distinctive, however, for their concerted actions in the face of environmental problems and the presence of defenders of a prehispanic worldview based on the protection of nature. This article addresses the health impacts of an integrated environmental health promotion strategy implemented through a participatory action research intervention based on qualitative and quantitative methods. Different actors, sectors, dimensions, and knowledge types were harmonized in a collaborative space created specifically for our interdisciplinary research team, community residents and local authorities. Reflections, plans and actions were developed collectively in this space with the view of finding solutions anchored in the local culture. Results included sharp reductions in blood-lead concentrations among children, in entomological indices, and in PCB contamination, as well as capacity strengthening. Medium-level community participation was achieved. This work contributes evidence that participatory environmental health research can be effective in analyzing and reducing problems in communities with multiple environmental health concerns. It complements ecohealth and environmental health literacy approaches.

Keywords

Environmental health promotion Participatory action research Lead in Mexico Dengue Water quality Integrated strategy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Fondo Mixto de Fomento a la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONACYT-MORELOS (MOR-2009-C01-116080). This study was made possible thanks to Norma Garduño-Salazar, Blanca Lilia Gaspar-del-Angel, Leonardo Mancilla-Sánchez, members of the CASITA group, Alpuyeca Community and to the Program of doctorate in community health of the University Laval, Québec.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individuals who participated in the study.

References

  1. Alamo-Hernandez U, Riojas-Rodriguez H, Baltazar-Reyes MC, O’Neill M (2014) Promocion de la salud ambiental: acercamiento de dos campos. El caso de Mexico. Global Health Promotion 21:80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anadón M, Savoie-Zajc L (2009) Introduction. L’analyse qualitative des données Recherches qualitatives 28:1–7.Google Scholar
  3. APHA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater, 21 ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association (APHA). American Water Works Association y Water Environment Federation..Google Scholar
  4. ATSDR (2000) Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp.asp?id=142&tid=26. Accessed August 9, 2017.
  5. ATSDR (2005) Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual (update). Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for toxic substances and Disease Registry.Google Scholar
  6. Balcazar F (2003) La investigación-acción participativa en psicología comunitaria. Principios y retos. Apuntes de Psicología 21:419–435.Google Scholar
  7. Baum F, MacDougall C, Smith D (2006) Participatory action research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60:854–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohensky E, Maru Y (2011) Indigenous knowledge, science, and resilience: what have we learned from a decade of international literature on “integration”? Ecology and Society 16:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briggs B (2013) Introducción al proceso del consenso, 1 ed. Tepoztlán, México: International Institute for Facilitation and Change (IIFAC).Google Scholar
  10. Briggs D (2007) Risk response to environmental hazards to health- Towards an Ecological Approach. Journal of Risk Research 10:593–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briggs DJ (2008) A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks. Environmental Health 7:61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bromley E, Mikesell L, Jones F, Khodyakov D (2015) From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research. American Journal of Public Health 105:900–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caprara A, De Oliveira Lima JW, Rocha Peixoto AC, Vasconcelos Motta CM, Soares Nobre JM, Sommerfeld J, Kroeger A (2015) Entomological impact and social participation in dengue control: a cluster randomized trial in Fortaleza, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 109:99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castro R, Ramírez A, Monrroy A, Izcapa C, Rodríguez R, Gayosso M, et al (2008) Impacto y riesgo ambiental de un sitio contaminado con Bifenilos Policlorados en Alpuyeca, Morelos. Revista Latinoamericana de Recursos Naturales 2.Google Scholar
  15. CDC (2012) LEAD. Update on Blood Lead Levels in Children. Atlanta, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_levels.htm. Accessed March 10, 2015.
  16. CENAPRECE (2014) Anuarios de morbilildad 1984–2012: Dirección general de epidemiología. Available: http://www.cenaprece.salud.gob.mx/programas/interior/vectores/dengue.html#. Accessed June 4, 2015.
  17. Cook WK (2008) Integrating research and action: a systematic review of community-based participatory research to address health disparities in environmental and occupational health in the USA. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62:668–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costilla-Salazar R (2010) Evaluación de Riesgos en Salud en dos sitios contaminados por bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) y metales pesados. PhD Programa multidisciplinario de posgrado en ciencias ambientales. Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí. pp 146.Google Scholar
  19. Charron DF (2014) Écosanté-Origines et approches. In: La recherche éconsanté en pratique Applications novatrices d’une approche écosystémique de la santé, Dominique C (editor). Ottawa: Springer, pp 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dávila F, Gómez W, Hernández T (2009) Situación de salud, una herramienta para la gerencia en los posgrados. Revista cubana de salud pública 35.Google Scholar
  21. Díaz-Barriga F, Hernández-Rojas F (2010) Estrategias docentes para un aprendizaje significativo. Una interpretación constructivista., 3 ed. México: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  22. Dockry MJ, Hall K, Van Lopik W, Caldwell CM (2016) Sustainable development education, practice, and research: an indigenous model of sustainable development at the College of Menominee Nation, Keshena, WI, USA. Sustainability Science 11:127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. EPA (1992) Guidelines for Exposure Assessment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: https://www.epa.gov/risk/guidelines-exposure-assessment. Accessed April 10, 2015.
  24. EPA (1999) Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume 1- Human Health Evaluation Manual Supplement to Part A: community Involvement in Supefund Risk Assessments. Washington, DC: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  25. EPA (2016) Risk assessment portal. Human health risk assessment. Available: http://www.epa.gov/risk/health-risk.htm. Accessed August 2, 2018.
  26. Farias P, Alamo-Hernandez U, Mancilla-Sanchez L, Texcalac-Sangrador JL, Carrizales-Yaez L, Riojas-Rodriguez H (2014) Lead in School Children from Morelos, Mexico: Levels, Sources and Feasible Interventions. Internationa Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11:12668–12682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finn S, O’Fallon L (2017) The Emergence of Environmental Health Literacy-From Its Roots to Its Future Potential. Environmental Health Perspecivest 125:495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. García R (2008) Sistemas complejos. Conceptos, método y fundamentación epistemológica de la investigación interdisciplinaria. Barcelona: gedisa.Google Scholar
  29. Garduño-Salazar N, Gaspar-del-Ángel BL, Soria-Saucedo R, Ortega-Carvajal VH, Reyna- Martínez LA (2009) Diagnóstico de salud de la comunidad de Alpuyeca. Cuernavaca, Morelos: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.Google Scholar
  30. Geifus F (2009) 80 herramientas para el desarrollo participativo: diagnóstico, planificación, monitoreo, evaluación. San José, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA).Google Scholar
  31. Gohier C (2004) De la démarcation entre citeres d’ordre scientifique et d’ordre éthique en recherche interptétative. Recherches qualitatives 24:3–17.Google Scholar
  32. Howze EH, Baldwin GT, Kegler MC (2004) Environmental health promotion: bridging traditional environmental health and health promotion. Health Education and Behavior 31:429–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. INEGI (2010): Censo de población y vivienda 2010: INEGI. Available: http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/iter/consultar_info.aspx2. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  34. ISO (1995): 10705-1: Water qualityDetection and enumeration of bacteriophages-part 1: Enumeration of specific RNA bacteriophages. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
  35. Israel BA, Parker EA, Rowe Z, Salvatore A, Minkler M, Lopez J, et al (2005) Community-based participatory research: lessons learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:1463–1471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kwiatkowski R (2011) Indigenous community based participatroy research and health impact assessment: A Canadien example. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31:445–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leal ME, Gonzalez D, Garcia SI, Perez-Maldonado IN, Rico E, Cossio P, et al (2011): [Community clinical toxicology]. Ciencia Saude Coletiva 16:3503–3508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liberato SC, Brimblecombe J, Ritchie J, Ferguson M, Coveney J (2011) Measuring capacity building in communities: a review of the literature. BMC Public Health 11:850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lichtveld M, Goldstein B, Grattan L, Mundorf C (2016) Then and now: lessons learned from community- academic partnerships in environmental health research. Environmental Health 15:117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Matte TD (2003) [Effects of lead exposure on children’s health]. Salud Publica de México 45 Suppl 2:S220–S224.Google Scholar
  41. Mikesell L, Bromley E, Khodyakov D (2013) Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review. American Journal of Public Health 103:e7–e14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Minkler M (2004) Ethical challenges for the “outside” researcher in community-based participatory research. Health Education and Behavior 31:684–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Minkler M, Wallerstein N editors (2008): Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: From Process to Outcomes 2nd ed, Vol 2nd San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Mittelmark MB, Bull T, Bouwman L (2017) Chapter 6. Emerging ideas relevant to the Salutogeneic Model of Health. In: Maurice B. Mittelmark MB, Sagy, S., Eriksson, M., Bauer, G.F., Pelikan, J.M., Lindström, B., Geir Arild Espnes editor. The Handbook of Salutogenesis: Springer, pp 45–56.Google Scholar
  45. O’Fallon LR, Dearry A (2002) Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 Suppl 2:155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Parker EA, Baldwin GT, Israel B, Salinas MA (2004) Application of health promotion theories and models for environmental health. Health Education Behavior 31:491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Parkes M, Panelli R (2001) Integrating catchment ecosystems and community health: the value of participatory action research. Ecosystem Health 7:86–106.Google Scholar
  48. Parks W, Lloyd L (2004) Planning social mobilization and communication for dengue fever prevention and control. A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE. Geneva World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  49. Peplow D, Augustine S (2012) Community-led assessment of risk from exposure to mercury by native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2012:674596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Perez-Maldonado IN, Ochoa Martinez AC, Ruiz-Vera T, Orta-Garcia ST, Varela-Silva JA (2017) Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicoogyl 99:338–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ramirez-Andreotta MD, Brusseau ML, Artiola J, Maier RM, Gandolfi AJ (2015) Building a co-created citizen science program with gardeners neighboring a superfund site: The Gardenroots case study. International Public Health J 7:13.Google Scholar
  52. Ramirez-Andreotta MD, Brusseau ML, Artiola JF, Maier RM, Gandolfi AJ (2014) Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites. Science and the Total Environment 497–498:651–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Riojas-Rodriguez H, Solis-Vivanco R, Schilmann A, Montes S, Rodriguez S, Rios C, Rodriguez-Agudelo Y (2010) Intellectual function in Mexican children living in a mining area and environmentally exposed to manganese. Environmental Health Perspectives 118:1465–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. SSA (2001) NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-032-SSA2-2002, Para la vigilancia epidemiológica, prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vector.: Diario Oficial de la Federación. Available: http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/032ssa202.html. Accessed May 2, 2018.
  55. Temper L, del-Bene D, Martinez-Alier J (2015) Mapping the frontiers and front lines of global environmental justice: the EJAtlas. Tiradero Tetlama, Morelos, México. Journal of Political Ecology 22:255–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thomas D (2006) A General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data American Journal of Evaluation 27:237–246.Google Scholar
  57. Waleckx E, Camara-Mejia J, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Cruz-Chan V, Rosado-Vallado M, Vazquez-Narvaez S, et al (2015) An innovative ecohealth intervention for Chagas disease vector control in Yucatan, Mexico. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 109:143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. WHO (2016) Shanghai Declaration on promoting health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Vol 2017. Available: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/9gchp/shanghai-declaration/en/ [November 6, 2017].
  59. Witten K, Parkes M, Ramasubramanian L (2000) Participatory environmental health research in Aotearoa/New Zealand: constraints and opportunities. Health Education Behavior 27:371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EcoHealth Alliance 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urinda Alamo-Hernández
    • 1
  • Ana Cecilia Espinosa-García
    • 2
  • Hilda Rangel-Flores
    • 3
  • Paulina Farías
    • 1
  • David Hernández-Bonilla
    • 1
  • Marlene Cortez-Lugo
    • 1
  • Fernando Díaz-Barriga
    • 4
  • Nelly Flores
    • 5
  • Sandra Rodríguez-Dozal
    • 1
  • Horacio Riojas–Rodríguez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health, Center of Investigation in Population Health (CISP)National Institute of Public Health (INSP)Cuernavaca MorMexico
  2. 2.Institute of Ecology, National Laboratory of Sciences of the SustainabilityNational Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Tercer Circuito Exterior Ciudad UniversitariaCoyoacán, MéxicoMexico
  3. 3.Center of Investigation on Infectious Diseases (CISEI)National Institute of Public Health (INSP)Cuernavaca MorMexico
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Toxicology - Medical SchoolAutonomous University of San Luis Potosí (UASLP)San Luis PotosíMexico
  5. 5.Public Health SchoolNational Insitute of Public Health (INSP)Cuernavaca MorMexico

Personalised recommendations