Zika Virus in Peridomestic Neotropical Primates, Northeast Brazil
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne viral disease associated with fetal microcephaly and other central nervous system (CNS) symptomatology. It was first identified in a Rhesus macaque in Uganda in 1947 and later in humans (Zika fever). In 2015, ZIKV was notified in Northeast Brazil where it was associated with CNS alterations and with rapid epidemic spread. Considering that ZIKV infects Old World monkeys, the aim of this study was to follow its potential in neotropical primates. Here, we show the detection of ZIKV in marmosets and capuchin monkeys captured in Ceara state, Northeast Brazil. Nine (9/132) samples were positive by quantitative RT-PCR assay. Neutralizing antibodies in primates for ZIKV were also detected by PRNT. The ZIKV-positive samples were obtained from peridomestic animals captured in proximity to humans in areas with reports of ZIKV-associated microcephaly cases during the epidemic period. These results reiterate the molecular evidence of ZIKV infection in neotropical primates, and the temporal detection suggests that detection in primates occurred during the epidemic period in humans. However, a continuous surveillance is necessary to exclude the possibility of virus circulation and transmission in wild environments.
KeywordsAntibodies Brazil Neotropical primates qRT-PCR Zika virus
The authors thank all the staff from the Health Department of Ceará State: NUVET, Regional Health Secretaries, Municipal Health Secretaries and Agents of endemic diseases. Their contribution and support was essential to locate the animals, capture these primates, to return to the sites of capture and to establish contact and collaboration of the local population. We thank Bruno Facchini for making the Fig 1.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
This study was funded by Sao Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP (Grant 2014/16333-1). Authors Araujo, Danielle and Machado, Rafael have received research grants from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level, or Education, Personnel—CAPES. Author da Crus, Nathalia has received research grant from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq. Author Mesquita, Flavio has received research grant from the Sao Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP.
All ethical procedures were observed and the activities had official authorization from IBAMA and the Chico Mendes Institute for Conservation of Biodiversity (Sisbio license 45196-4).
Human and Animal Rights
All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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