Risky sexual behaviours among school-aged adolescents in Namibia: secondary data analyses of the 2013 Global school-based health survey

  • Abdul-Aziz SeiduEmail author
  • Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
  • Edward Kwabena Ameyaw
  • Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh
  • Eugene Budu
  • Hawa Iddrisu
  • Edmond Banafo Nartey
Original Article



Risky sexual behaviours (RSB) among adolescents is one of the major public health concerns globally. These behaviours–RSB have adverse effects on their future health and well-being. Therefore, in this paper, our aim was to assess the determinants of RSB among in-school Namibian adolescents using the 2013 Global School-based Health Survey.


The data was extracted and analysed with STATA version 14.2. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses were done to generate results that infomed the discussion. The results were presented as odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). Level of statistical significance was declared at a p-value of < 0.05.


Our results showed that of the 2846 adolescents surveyed, 51.8% reported they have ever had sexual intercourse.

Fifty-eight percent reported having multiple sexual partners and 23.2% reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse. The multivariable analysis showed that age [AOR = 2.50; CI = 1.99–3.14], sex [AOR = 0.40; CI = 0.34–0.47], grade [AOR = 1.80; CI =1.38–2.36], suicidal ideation [AOR = 1.44; CI =1.16–1.79], bullying [AOR = 1.36; CI = 1.15–1.62], hunger [AOR = 1.39; CI = 1.17–1.64], alcohol use [AOR = 1.57; CI = 1.31–1.89], marijuana use [AOR = 1.98; CI = 1.14–3.45] and parental knowledge of activity [AOR = 0.82; CI = 0.68–0.99] showed statistically significant influence on sexual experience. Sex [AOR = 0.43; CI = 0.33–0.55], grade [AOR = 1.58; CI = 1.15–2.18], alcohol use [AOR = 1.37; CI =1.07–1.75], marijuana use [AOR = 2.23; CI = 1.11–4.46] and parental supervision [AOR = 0.76; CI = 0.59–0.98] were associated with multiple sexual partners. There was also statistically significant association between age [AOR = 0.32; CI = 0.21–0.48], loneliness [AOR = 1.49; CI = 1.04–2.14], number of close friends [AOR = 0.60; CI = 0.37–0.96] and parental supervision [AOR = 0.43; CI = 0.32–0.60] on non-condom use.


These findings underscore the need for a pragmatic approach in addressing RSB among adolescents by adopting substance use prevention and mental health promotion programmes and by encouraging more parental involvement in activities of their adolescents.


Determinants Risky sexual behaviour Adolescents School-aged adolescents Namibia 



We are grateful to the WHO for making the data available for analysis.

Authors’ contributions

AS, EKMD, BOA, and EA were involved in the concept and study design. AS conducted data analysis. AS and BOA drafted the manuscript. AS, BOA, EKMD, EKA, EB, EBN, and HI critically revised the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Population and HealthUniversity of Cape CoastCape CoastGhana
  2. 2.The Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research (ACPPHR), Faculty of HealthUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Ghana Education ServicePusigaGhana
  4. 4.Ghana Health Service, Abura Dunkwa Health DirectorateAbura DunkwaGhana

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