Development of a pharmacists’ antibiotic shared decision-making tool for adolescents in upper respiratory tract infections

  • Irma Wati Ngadimon
  • Farida IslahudinEmail author
  • Noraida Mohamed Shah
  • Ernieda Md Hatah
  • Mohd Makmor-Bakry
Original Article



Inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections is often seen in adolescents. The use of shared decision-making (SDM) tools has been shown to reduce this. Therefore, this study aims to develop an SDM aid for upper respiratory infections in adolescents.


A steering committee was set up that consisted of a multidisciplinary team to develop the SDM aid based on the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) process. The aid was developed based on two scenarios: A — request for antibiotics without a valid prescription, and B — request for antibiotics with a prescription.


A steering committee reviewed an extensive draft which was sent to 800 pharmacists for further input. Six hundred and eight respondents returned the completed survey. For scenario A, a total of 27 statements were included in the final decision aid. In scenario B, a total of 17 statements were included in the decision aid. The final draft was then reviewed and approved.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first SDM aid developed for antibiotic use among adolescents based on local data. Further work should be performed to promote its use, to ensure positive outcome of antibiotic use in upper respiratory infections.


Shared decision-making Tool Antibiotics Adolescents Upper respiratory infection 



The authors would like to thank all the respondents for participating in the study.


The current work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/2/2013/SKK02/UKM/03/2) from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Quality Use of Medicine, Faculty of PharmacyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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