General health and self-efficacy for health practices of pregnant women: is it important for motherhood?

  • Shirin Ghasemi
  • Masoud Rayyani
  • Jamileh FarokhzadianEmail author
Original Article



This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general health and self-efficacy for health practices of pregnant women.

Subjects and methods

In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a two-stage cluster-sampling method was applied and 300 pregnant women were selected from 15 health centers affiliated with a large medical university in the southeast of Iran. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Self Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scale (SRAHPS).


The pregnant women’s total mean score for the GHQ-28 was 28.65 ± 10.92, which showed slight general health disorders. The total mean score of participants’ self-efficacy for health practices was moderate (54.47 ± 18.40). A significant relationship was observed between general health and self-efficacy for health practices (r = − 0.35, p = 0.01).


Pregnant women had slight general health disorders and moderate self-efficacy for health practices. According to the findings, increasing general health status of pregnant women improved their self-efficacy for health practices. Therefore, general health-promoting interventions are recommended to improve self-efficacy for health practices of pregnant women.


Mental health Self-efficacy Health practices Health-promotion behaviors Pregnancy 



The researchers would like to appreciate the pregnant women who devoted so graciously a part of their time to participate in the study.

Author contributions

All researchers contributed to designing and drafting this research. All authors contributed equally to writing the manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

The Ethics Committee affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences approved this study with the code of Ir.kmu.rec.1395.92. In order to observe the ethical considerations, the researcher initially presented the letter of introduction and made the required coordination with the health centers. Then, verbal agreement of participants was obtained and they were assured about confidentiality and anonymity of the data. Women were also assured about voluntary participation in the study. Informed consent forms were also received from the participants.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirin Ghasemi
    • 1
  • Masoud Rayyani
    • 2
  • Jamileh Farokhzadian
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and MidwiferyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and MidwiferyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Nursing Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran

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