Advertisement

Magnitude of occupational exposure to noise, heat and associated factors among sugarcane factory workers in Ethiopia, 2017

  • Getachew Redae TaffereEmail author
  • Mitiku Bonsa
  • Mulubirhan Assefa
Original Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Industrialisation in Ethiopia is gaining momentum, with the objective of transforming the traditional, agriculture-dependent economy. However, occupational health and safety is not in place to address health risks.

Objective

Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of occupational exposure to noise, heat and associated factors among Metehara sugarcane factory workers.

Method

To this effect, a cross-sectional study was employed involving 552 workers and using stratified random sampling techniques. Data were collected by a pre-tested, structured, interview-administered questionnaire and hazard and risk analysis checklist. Noise levels were measured by hand-held, model HD600 sound level meters. Heat levels were assessed using “heat stress (HT) 30” area heat stress monitors. Data were entered into Epi Info 7 software and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis.

Results

The results show that 418 (75.7%) and 243 (44%) workers were exposed to excessive heat and noise, respectively. Lack of labour inspections and safety audits, lack of personal protective equipment, absence of job rotation and job dissatisfaction were associated significantly with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) at 6.74 (2.65, 7.12), 6.62 (2.48, 7.62), 2.13 (1.35, 3.36), 2.44 (1.31, 4.53) and 5.4 (3.22, 9.06), respectively. Occupational exposure to heat and noise were found to exceed occupational exposure limits. Hence, the prevention of occupational exposure targeted at the identified factors is crucial.

Keywords

Occupational exposure Noise Heat Sugarcane factory Ethiopia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the participants for their contribution to this research and the plantation managers for their support in conducting this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All participants were instructed about the objective of the study and assured of confidentiality and anonymity; their informed consent was also obtained. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Mekelle University, College of Health Sciences and a letter of support was written by the Ethiopian Sugar Corporation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10389_2019_1070_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Bernhard MC, Kent ST, Sloan ME, Evans MB, McClure LA, Gohlke JM (2015) Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment. Environ Res 137:410–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biswas G, Bhattacharya A, Bhattacharya R (2016) A review on the occupational health of sugar cane workers. Int J Biomed Res 7:568–570.  https://doi.org/10.7439/ijbr.v7i8.3494 Google Scholar
  3. Carnahan BJ, Redfern MS, Norman B (2000) Designing safe job rotation schedules using optimization and heuristic search. Ergonomics 43:543–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CDC, NIOSH (2012) Exposure assessment method, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  5. Crowe J (2014) Heat exposure and health outcomes in Costa Rican sugarcane harvesters. Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary, Umeå University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  6. Crowe J, van Wendel de Joode B, Wesseling C (2009) A pilot field evaluation on heat stress in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica: what to do next? Glob Health Action 2(s2):2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawal S, Taha Z (2007) The effect of job organizational factors on job satisfaction in two automotive industries in Malaysia. J Hum Ergol 36:63–68Google Scholar
  8. Dembe AE, Erickson JB, Delbos R (2004) Predictors of work-related injuries and illnesses: national survey findings. J Occup Environ Hyg 1:542–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edmund EE (2015) Analysis of occupational hazards and safety of workers in selected working environments within Enugu Metropolis. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5:337.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0525.1000337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feder K, Michaud D, McNamee J, Fitzpatrick E, Davies H, Leroux T (2017) Prevalence of hazardous occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and hearing protection usage among a representative sample of working Canadians. J Occup Environ Med 59:92–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Habib RR, Blanche G, Souha F, El-Jardali F, Nuwayhid I (2016) Occupational health and safety in hospitals accreditation system: the case of Lebanon. Int J Occup Environ Health 22:201–208.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10773525.2016.1200211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ILO (2014) Safety and health at work. ILO cataloguing in publication data, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  13. ILO, WHO (2010) Identification and recognition of occupational diseases. BRI 74:1–82Google Scholar
  14. Jackson LL, Rosenberg HR (2010) Preventing heat-related illness among agricultural workers. J Agromedicine 15:200–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jilcha K, Kitaw D (2016) A literature review on global occupational safety and health practice & accidents severity. Int J Qual Res 10:279–310.  https://doi.org/10.18421/ijqr10.02-04 Google Scholar
  16. Laws RL, Brooks DR, Amador JJ, Weiner DE, Kaufman JS, Ramírez-Rubio O, Riefkohl A, Scammell MK, López-Pilarte D, Sánchez JM, Parikh CR, McClean MD (2016) Biomarkers of kidney injury among Nicaraguan sugarcane workers. Am J Kidney Dis 67:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Le Blond JS, Woskie S, Horwell CJ, Williamson BJ (2017) Particulate matter produced during commercial sugarcane harvesting and processing: a respiratory health hazard? Atmos Environ 149:34–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McNamara J, Griffin P, Kinsella J, Phelan J (2017) Health and safety adoption from use of a risk assessment document on Irish farms. J Agromedicine 22:384–394Google Scholar
  19. MoFED (2010) Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP). Ministry or Finance andEconomic Development, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  20. Nankongnab N, Silpasuwan P, Markkanen P, Kongtip P, Woskie S (2015) Occupational safety, health, and well-being among home-based workers in the informal economy of Thailand. New Solut 25:212–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. NIOSH, OSHA (2010) Promoting productive workplaces through safety and health research. NIOSHGoogle Scholar
  22. Niskanen T, Louhelainen K, Hirvonen ML (2014) An evaluation of the effects of the occupational safety and health inspectors’ supervision in workplaces. Accid Anal Prev 68:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rao SS, veni Avvaru K, Krishna V (2015) Assessment of hearing loss among workers of a sugarcane industry. IOSR-JDMS 14:33–35.  https://doi.org/10.9790/0853-14173335 Google Scholar
  24. Robinson JC (1987) Worker responses to workplace hazards. J Health Polit Policy Law 12:665–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Solomon TT, Chercos DH, Dessie A (2017) Self-reported safety practices and associated factors among employees of Dashen brewery share company, Gondar, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. J Occup Med Toxicol 12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12995-017-0169-2
  26. Tadesse S, Kelaye T, Assefa Y (2016) Utilization of personal protective equipment and associated factors among textile factory workers at Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia. J Occup Med Toxicol 11:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yartire H, Weisi B, Hashemian A (2014) Complete survey of Biston sugar production factory’s occupational hearing. Adv Biol Res 8:187–190.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.abr.2014.8.5.84294 Google Scholar
  28. Yiha O, Kumie A (2010) Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural Development S.C, Afar Regional State. Ethiop J Health Dev 24:167–174.  https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v24i3.68380 Google Scholar
  29. Yohannes B (2015) Energy assessment, generation and utilization efficiency in Ethiopian sugar factories. Case study: Metehara Sugar FactoryGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Health, College of Health SciencesMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  2. 2.Federal Police Communion and Medewelabu UniversityBale RobeEthiopia

Personalised recommendations