The impact of clinical pharmacy services in Nepal in the context of current health policy: a systematic review

  • Reyaj Mikrani
  • Muhammad Naveed
  • Aman Mikrani
  • Sufia Yasmeen
  • MD. Akabar
  • Zhou XiaohuiEmail author
Original Article



The necessity of clinical pharmacy services is increasing globally, and their provision is the upcoming direction of hospital pharmacists. The aim of this review was focused on the impact of clinical pharmacy services in the Nepalese healthcare setup.

Subjects and methods

The English-language databases of Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library were searched using the following keywords: ‘pharmacy’, ‘clinical pharmacy’, pharmaceutical services’, ‘pharmacists’, pharmaceutical care’, ‘pharmacy practice’, ‘hospital pharmacy’, ‘pharmaceutical interventions’, and ‘Nepal’. Eligibility for inclusion, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction from the included studies were determined by two authors, and a narrative synthesis was conducted.


This review contained a total of 14 published articles. The included studies involved the counseling and educating of patients, working as a member of the healthcare team, detecting prescribing errors, suggesting clinicians or nurses, reviewing prescriptions on the ward, giving training and monitoring of the implementation of policies, etc. The outcome of these interventions showed a reduction in the direct healthcare cost, excessive use of medicines, and prescription errors, as well as improvement in the drug utilization pattern, knowledge, as well as satisfaction of patients.


In order to implement and enhance clinical pharmacy services, governmental, educational, and administrative support may be needed.


Clinical pharmacy Clinical pharmacist Hospital pharmacy Pharmaceutical care Pharmaceutical services Nepal 



The authors greatly acknowledge Dr. Muhammad Abbas (School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, People’s Republic of China) for his guidance and insightful comments on this manuscript. The lead author (Reyaj Mikrani) is thankful to the China Scholarship Council (CSC) for its generous financial support for him to study in China.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 30973003 and 30901993) and the Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Jiangsu Province (grant number LZ11093).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests.

Supplementary material

10389_2019_1042_MOESM1_ESM.docx (85 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 84 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical PharmacyChina Pharmaceutical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of PharmacyNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Finance, College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of PharmacyChina Pharmaceutical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryZhongda Hospital affiliated to Southeast UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Department of Heart SurgeryNanjing Shuiximen HospitalNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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