Journal of Public Health

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 43–47 | Cite as

Prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors among preparatory school students in Beni-Suef, Egypt

  • Ahmed Emad El-Din ArafaEmail author
  • Ashraf Abd Elazim Ewis
  • Waleed Mohamed Mahran
  • Amel Abd Elazim Mohamed
  • Ekram Mohamed El-Shabrawy
Original Article



Studying the epidemiology of refractive errors (REs) among school students is important for developing national strategies that can prevent visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence and risk factors of RE among preparatory school students in Beni-Suef, Egypt.


In this cross-sectional study, a total of 469 school students aged 12~14 years received visual acuity (VA) assessments using Snellen’s chart, and students who failed the test (visual acuity worse than 6/9 in either eye) were subjected to refractive evaluation using an autorefractor.


The overall prevalence of RE among the sampled students was 22.8% (71% myope and 29% hyperope). There was a statistically significant association between RE and family factors. Students whose parents both wore glasses were more likely to have RE (P < 0.001, OR = 3.24) and students with two or more siblings wearing glasses showed higher rates of RE (P < 0.001, OR = 4.5). Students with RE reported more hours/day watching TV (P < 0.001, OR = 3.59).


The prevalence of RE in preparatory school students in Beni-Suef was detected. Family history and indoor activities are determining risk factors for RE. Nearly half of our school students with RE were newly detected in this study.


Refractive errors School students Risk factors Prevalence 


Compliance with ethical standards

The study was conducted in full accordance with the guidelines for Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at the Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University. The heads of the selected schools were briefed on the purpose of the study and signed an informed consent form on behalf of the school children. Verbal assent of the students was sought before they were examined.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Emad El-Din Arafa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashraf Abd Elazim Ewis
    • 2
  • Waleed Mohamed Mahran
    • 3
  • Amel Abd Elazim Mohamed
    • 4
  • Ekram Mohamed El-Shabrawy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Faculty of MedicineBeni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Occupational Medicine, Faculty of MedicineMinia UniversityMinyaEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of MedicineBeni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Community Health, Faculty of NursingBeni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt

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