Risk modeling of non-communicable diseases using socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and family disease history among university students in Bangladesh
- 112 Downloads
The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle-related determinants, environmental and psychological characteristics, and individual and family disease history among university students in Bangladesh.
Using the WHO STEPwise approach for NCDs, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,140 students. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.
In all, 29.2% of the respondents (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2) were overweight and/or obese, and almost two-thirds (65%) of them did not take part in any physical activity (PA). A third (33.3%, p = 0.002) of male smokers reported health problems and it was found that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was significantly responsible for developing asthma (OR = 0.55; CI = 0.33–0.93). Individual and family history of NCDs was statistically significant for obesity and asthma and considerably increased the odds ratio for heart disease.
This study shows that the number of students suffering from different types of NCDs is not negligible. Their lifestyle and family history of NCDs are responsible for this to a significant extent. Urgent initiatives should be taken to rein in the spread of NCDs among the youth of Bangladesh.
KeywordsNon-communicable diseases Socio-demographic characteristics Lifestyle Family diseases BMI Bangladesh
S.H. conceived the study, was responsible for the implementation, analysis and interpretation of data and wrote the manuscript. M.S.H. supervised the study and critically revised the manuscript. A.A. and F.A. contributed to the implementation of the study, data processing and manuscript development. M.F.H. critically reviewed the statistical analysis section of the paper. M.E.U. critically reviewed and edited the manuscript.
This study was financially supported by the Research Grant Program 2016 of the Jahangirnagar University Science Club (JUSC), Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was conducted while maintaining ethical standards to the highest possible extent. The research proposal was approved by the Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects were followed throughout the study. All participants read, understood, and signed a written consent form. The ethical clearance for data collection was given by the respective faculty and department heads.
- Babatunde OA, Elegbede OE, Ayodele LM, Atoyebi OA, Ibirongbe DO (2012) Cigarette smoking practices and its determinants among university students in southwest Nigeria. J Asian Sci Res 2(2):62–69Google Scholar
- Eva EO, Islam MZ, Mosaddek ASM, Rahman MF, Rozario RJ, Iftekhar AFMH, Ahmed TS, Jahan I, Abubakar AR, Dali WPEW, Razzaque MS, Habib RB, Haque M (2015) Prevalence of stress among medical students: a comparative study between public and private medical schools in Bangladesh. BMC Res Notes 8:327. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1295-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, Dai S, Ford ES, Fox CS, Franco S, Fullerton HJ, Gillespie C, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, McGuire DK, Mohler ER, Moy CS, Mussolino ME, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Pandey DK, Paynter NP, Reeves MJ, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Wong ND, Woo D, Turner MB (2014) Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics-2014 update—a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 129(3):e28–e292. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000441139.02102.80 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanan Abo-Elgamelen Ebrahim E, El-Shemy MBA (2015) Prevalence of lifestyle associated risk factors for non-communicable diseases and its effect on quality of life among nursing students, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University. Int J Adv Res 3(5):429–446Google Scholar
- Kaneita Y, Yokoyama E, Harano S, Tamaki T, Suzuki H, Munezawa T, Nakajima H, Asai T, Ohida T (2009) Associations between sleep disturbance and mental health status: a longitudinal study of Japanese junior high school students. Sleep Med 10(7):780–786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2008.06.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karmakar P, Jahan N, Banik S, Das A, Rahman K, Kundu S, Sattar M (2016) Food habits, obesity and nutritional knowledge among the university students in Noakhali region of Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. J Food Nutr Dis 5(4). https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000201
- Khoury M, Manlhiot C, Gibson D, Chahal N, Stearne K, Dobbin S, McCrindle BW (2016) Universal screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents to identify high-risk families: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr 16:11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0548-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim G, Aguado Loi CX, Chiriboga DA, Jang Y, Parmelee P, Allen RS (2011) Limited english proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders. J Psychiatr Res 45(1):104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.04.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kono K, Eskandarieh S, Obayashi Y, Arai A, Tamashiro H (2015) Mental health and its associated variables among international students at a Japanese university: with special reference to their financial status. J Immigr Minor Health 17(6):1654–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0100-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martinez Alvarez JR, Garcia Alcon R, Villarino Marin A, Marrodan Serrano MD, Serrano Morago L (2015) Eating habits and preferences among the student population of the Complutense University of Madrid. Public Health Nutr 18(14):2654–2659. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015000026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Samuels TA, Ozcan NK, Mantilla C, Rahamefy OH, Wong ML, Gasparishvili A (2014) Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(7):7425–7441. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110707425 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pullman AW, Masters RC, Zalot LC, Carde LE, Saraiva MM, Dam YY, Randall Simpson JA, Duncan AM (2009) Effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometric and lifestyle variables in males. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 34(2):162–171. https://doi.org/10.1139/H09-007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sreeramareddy CT, Pradhan PM, Mir IA, Sin S (2014) Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine south and southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from demographic and health surveys. Popul Health Metrics 12:22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-014-0022-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2011) WHO global status report on non-communicable diseases 2010: description of the global burden of NCDs: their risk factors and determinants. WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44579/1/9789240686458_eng.pdf. Accessed 24 Mar 2016
- WHO (2013a) WHO global action plan for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: 2013–2020. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/global-coordination-mechanism/publications/global-actionplan-ncds-eng.pdf. Accessed 8 Apr 2017
- WHO (2013b) What are the health consequences of being overweight? WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/features/qa/49/en/. Accessed 23 Apr 2017
- WHO (2015) WHO report on UN Sustainable Development Summit 2015: health-related SDGs targets. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/meetings/2015/un-sustainable-development-summit/en/. Accessed 8 Apr 2017
- WHO (2016a) WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS). WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/chp/steps/en/. Accessed 24 Mar 2016
- WHO (2016b) Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: prevalence of insufficient physical activity. WHO, Geneva. http://who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/physical_activity_text/en/. Accessed 30 Mar 2016
- WHO (2016c) Mental health and substance abuse. WHO, Geneva. http://www.searo.who.int/bangladesh/areas/substanceabuse/en/. Accessed 3 Apr 2016
- WHO (2017) WHO fact sheet on non-communicable diseases. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en/. Accessed 4 Aug 2017