Epidemiologic and clinical findings of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in four provinces of Iran

  • Shima Mahmoudi
  • Babak Pourakbari
  • Mina Moradzadeh
  • Zahra Movahedi
  • Keyghobad Ghadiri
  • Masoumeh Abedini
  • Alireza Aziz-Ahari
  • Amitis Ramezani
  • Setareh MamishiEmail author
original article



The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a remarkable challenge throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Despite the fact that HIV in children is becoming one of the most challenging diseases, it seems that pediatric AIDS in Iran is an unknown disease and there is a lack of studies about it. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of HIV-positive children who referred to the hospitals of Tehran, Kermanshah, Kurdistan, and Qom provinces of Iran.

Materials and methods

This study was a retrospective investigation of medical records among 61 children with a diagnosis of HIV who were admitted to the children’s hospitals in the four provinces of Iran during a 3-year period (2013–2016).


The frequency of HIV in the center of Iran (Tehran and Qom provinces) was higher (N = 37, 61%). Most of the infected patients were between 5 and 15 years old, 52% were male, and 93% had a history of HIV in their family. Median age at diagnosis of HIV was 2 years. Most of the hospitalized patients were discharged and only two patients (3%) died due to HIV infection. The vast majority of patients (93%) were infected through maternal transmission and a low percentage (29%) were diagnosed before 1 year of age. All of them were in the third stage of the disease. All patients had a positive HIV PCR test. HIV EIA was positive in the majority of cases (98%). A history of addiction in the family was demonstrated in 22 cases (36%). Weight loss (N = 51, 84%), prolonged fever (N = 50, 81%), and respiratory infection (N = 26, 47%) were the most common symptoms.


This study demonstrated a high frequency of pediatric HIV among children aged 5–15 years in four provinces of Iran. Novel strategies to prevent and eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, diagnostic facilities, and treatment of infected mothers during pregnancy in our country are highly recommended.


Epidemiology Clinical findings Human immunodeficiency virus Pediatric Iran 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

S. Mahmoudi, B. Pourakbari, M. Moradzadeh, Z. Movahedi, K. Ghadiri, M. Abedini, A. Aziz-Ahari, A. Ramezani, and S. Mamishi declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Pasteur Institute of Iran ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shima Mahmoudi
    • 1
  • Babak Pourakbari
    • 1
  • Mina Moradzadeh
    • 1
  • Zahra Movahedi
    • 2
  • Keyghobad Ghadiri
    • 3
  • Masoumeh Abedini
    • 4
  • Alireza Aziz-Ahari
    • 5
  • Amitis Ramezani
    • 6
  • Setareh Mamishi
    • 1
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Pediatric Infectious Disease Research CenterTehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, School of MedicineQom University of Medical SciencesQomIran
  3. 3.Nosocomial Infection Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineSanandaj University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  5. 5.Radiology department, Rasool-e-Akram HospitalIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Clinical Research DepartmentPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  7. 7.Department of Infectious Diseases, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children Medical Center Hospital, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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