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Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift

, Volume 169, Issue 1–2, pp 33–40 | Cite as

Neurological complications of systemic tumor therapy

  • Wolfgang GrisoldEmail author
  • Wolfgang Löscher
  • Anna Grisold
original article
  • 59 Downloads

Summary

The treatment of malignant tumors has considerably improved in recent years, and also the number of “long term cancer survivors” is increasing.

The spectrum of anti-tumoral agents is increasing at a fast pace and in addition to conventional therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, new drugs with entirely new mechanisms are appearing. Side effects of old and new drugs can affect the central and peripheral nervous system, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle. These side effects often have to be distinguished from other causes and need neurological expertise. Although the majority of patients still receive conventional therapies, several new strategies such as immune therapies are being implemented. These drugs have also drug specific side effects, which do not always follow the classical principles of “toxicity.”

This review focuses on the well-known and described side effects of conventional cancer therapies and adds new observations on new drugs.

Keywords

Oncology Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Immune therapy Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Side effects New drugs 

Neurologische Komplikationen der systemischen Tumortherapie

Zusammenfassung

Die Behandlung maligner Tumoren hat sich in den letzten Jahren beträchtlich verbessert. Auch die Zahl der Langzeitüberlebenden nach Tumorerkrankung steigt.

Das Spektrum der Wirkstoffe gegen Krebs nimmt rasant zu. Neben konventionellen Therapien, wie operativen Eingriffen, Radiotherapie und Chemotherapie, werden neue Substanzen mit vollkommen neuen Wirkmechanismen eingeführt. Nebenwirkungen alter und neuer Medikamente können das zentrale und periphere Nervensystem, die motorische Endplatte und den Muskel betreffen. Diese Nebenwirkungen müssen häufig von anderen Ursachen abgegrenzt werden und erfordern neurologisches Fachwissen. Auch wenn die Mehrzahl der Patienten immer noch konventionelle Therapien erhält, werden aktuell verschiedene neue Strategien wie Immuntherapien etabliert. Entsprechende Medikamente haben auch spezifische Nebenwirkungen, die nicht immer den klassischen Grundsätzen der „Toxizität“ folgen.

Der Fokus der vorliegenden Übersicht liegt auf bekannten und gut charakterisierten Nebenwirkungen konventioneller Tumortherapien. Darüber hinaus werden Beobachtungen zu neuen Medikamenten beschrieben.

Schlüsselwörter

Onkologie Strahlentherapie Chemotherapie Immuntherapie Zentrales Nervensystem Peripheres Nervensystem Nebenwirkungen Neue Substanzen 

Notes

Conflict of interest

W. Grisold, W. Löscher, and A. Grisold declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Grisold
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wolfgang Löscher
    • 2
  • Anna Grisold
    • 3
  1. 1.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental und Clinical TraumatologyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Univ. Klinik für Neurologie InnsbruckMedizinische Universität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  3. 3.Neurologische AbteilungMedizinische Universität WienViennaAustria

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