Managing human-tiger conflict: lessons from Bardia and Chitwan National Parks, Nepal

  • Babu Ram BhattaraiEmail author
  • Wendy Wright
  • Damian Morgan
  • Simon Cook
  • Hem Sagar Baral


Successful conservation outcomes for the tiger (Panthera tigris) have been achieved in Nepalese protected areas. However, an unwelcome consequence of greater tiger numbers is the increased prevalence of human-tiger conflict (HTC), particularly in buffer zone areas adjacent to key tiger reserves, which are heavily utilised by farming communities. HTC events may manifest as attacks by tigers on livestock or people, or as people harming tigers. Since 1994, 12 and 99 fatal tiger attacks on people were reported in and near Bardia and Chitwan National Parks, respectively; and since 1979, 34 tigers from these Parks have been killed due to HTC. HTC presents major threats to local people and to the continuing success of tiger conservation programmes. Conservation authorities in Nepal are implementing innovative solutions to prevent and mitigate HTC. These include financial compensation for damage caused by tigers and locally based community projects and programmes focussed on changing livestock husbandry practises, raising awareness of tiger ecology among local residents and supporting families to reduce their reliance on park resources. While these approaches have been successful in mitigating HTC and its effects in Nepal, further developments and refinements are required. This paper provides a synthesis of published and unpublished reports of HTC, in order to demonstrate the magnitude of the problem faced in Nepal. A critical summary of current management practises adopted in two of Nepal’s key tiger reserves is intended to provide a tool for managers to target their efforts towards methods likely to achieve success.


Human-tiger conflict Predators Compensation Prey Problem-wildlife Human attack 


Funding information

This review paper forms part of the literature review for BB’s Ph.D. project, which is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Programme RTP Fee Offset Scholarship through Federation University, Australia. The Rufford Foundation and the Zoological Society of London’s Nepal program have also contributed funding for the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of National Parks and Wildlife ConservationKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.School of Health and Life SciencesFederation University Australia, Gippsland CampusChurchillAustralia
  3. 3.Federation Business SchoolFederation University Australia, Gippsland CampusChurchillAustralia
  4. 4.School of Health and Life SciencesFederation University Australia, Mt Helen CampusBallaratAustralia
  5. 5.Zoological Society of LondonNepal ProgrammeKathmanduNepal

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