Growth Inhibition, Residual Contact and Translaminar Toxicity of Annona-based Bioinsecticides on Tomato Leafminer: Laboratory and Greenhouse Assessments

  • Elaine Ferrari de Brito
  • Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin
  • Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves
  • Leila Gimenes
  • João Batista Fernandes
  • Leandro do Prado RibeiroEmail author
Original Article


This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic extracts from different parts of some Annona species (A. montana, A. muricata and A. sylvatica) against T. absoluta. In the initial screening, the ethanolic extracts from leaves and seeds of A. muricata promoted pronounced lethality and growth inhibition of T. absoluta larvae by means of residual contact and translaminar action. However, these extracts did not affect its biology, oviposition in choice and no-choice tests, as well as egg viability. Afterwards, the crude ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds from A. muricata were submitted to liquid-liquid partitioning, and their respective fractions were evaluated against T. absoluta larvae. These procedures disclosed the hydroalcoholic fraction from A. muricata seeds and both the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from its leaves as the most active against T. absoluta larvae. Then, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) experiments were performed aiming to identify the main constituents present in these fractions. The chemical analyses of each NMR spectrum revealed that A. muricata bioactive fractions presented acetogenins as major compounds. Moreover, a formulated ethanolic extract from A. muricata seeds presented similar bioactivity against T. absoluta larvae in both laboratory and greenhouse bioassays when compared with two commercial botanical insecticides (AnosomTM 1 EC and Azaamax 1.2 EC). Therefore, the seeds from A. muricata, discarded during the process of its fruit pulp extraction, are a potential source of bioactive acetogenins to formulate botanical insecticides to control populations of T. absoluta in tomato crops, mainly in organic production systems.


Solanum lycopersicum Tuta absoluta Botanical insecticide Annona spp. Acetogenins 

Wirkungen von Annona-basierten Bioinsektiziden auf die Tomatenminiermotte: Analysen in Labor und Gewächshaus


Diese Studie zielte darauf ab, die Bioaktivität von ethanolischen Extrakten aus verschiedenen Teilen einiger Annona-Arten (A. montana, A. muricata und A. sylvatica) gegen T. absoluta zu bewerten. Im ersten Screening führten die ethanolischen Extrakte aus Blättern und Samen von A. muricata zu einer ausgeprägten Letalität und Wachstumshemmung der T. absoluta-Larven durch Kontakt mit Rückständen und die translaminare Wirkung. Diese Extrakte hatten jedoch keinen Einfluss auf die Biologie, die Eiablage bei Choice- und No-Choice-Tests sowie die Lebensfähigkeit der Eier. Anschließend wurden die ethanolischen Extrakte aus Blättern und Samen von A. muricata einer Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion unterzogen und ihre jeweiligen Fraktionen gegen T. absoluta-Larven getestet. Diese Verfahren ergaben, dass die hydroalkoholische Fraktion aus A. muricata-Samen und sowohl die Ethylacetat- als auch die Dichlormethanfraktion aus den Blättern am aktivsten gegen T. absoluta-Larven sind. Dann wurden Protonen-Kernspinresonanz-(1H‑NMR)-Experimente durchgeführt, um die Hauptbestandteile zu identifizieren, die in diesen Fraktionen vorhanden sind. Die chemische Analyse jedes NMR-Spektrums ergab, dass bioaktive Fraktionen von A. muricata Acetogenine als Hauptverbindungen enthielten. Darüber hinaus zeigte der ethanolische Extrakt aus A. muricata-Samen eine ähnliche Bioaktivität gegen T. absoluta-Larven in Labor- und Gewächshaus-Bioassays wie zwei kommerziellen botanischen Insektizide (AnosomTM 1 EC und Azaamax 1.2 EC). Daher sind die Samen von A. muricata, die während des Prozesses der Fruchtfleischgewinnung entsorgt werden, eine potenzielle Quelle bioaktiver Acetogenine und damit zur Entwicklung botanischer Insektizide zur Kontrolle der Populationen von T. absoluta in Tomatenkulturen, hauptsächlich in ökologischen Produktionssystemen, geeignet.


Solanum lycopersicum Tuta absoluta Botanisches Insektizid Annona spp. Acetogenine 



We thank the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for a doctoral scholarship granted to the first author and to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the productivity in research fellowship granted to the second and fifth authors.

Conflict of interest

E. Ferrari de Brito, E.L. Lopes Baldin, G.L. Padoan Gonçalves, L. Gimenes, J. Batista Fernandes and L. do Prado Ribeiro declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Ferrari de Brito
    • 1
  • Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin
    • 1
  • Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves
    • 2
  • Leila Gimenes
    • 3
  • João Batista Fernandes
    • 3
  • Leandro do Prado Ribeiro
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Crop Protection, School of AgricultureSão Paulo State UniversityBotucatuBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Entomology and Acarology, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of AgricultureUniversity of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP)PiracicabaBrazil
  3. 3.Natural Products Laboratory, Department of ChemistryFederal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil
  4. 4.Research Center for Family AgricultureAgricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina (CEPAF/EPAGRI)ChapecóBrazil

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