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Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata Lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) Under Controlled Conditions

  • Bilal AttaEmail author
  • Muhammad Rizwan
  • Arshed Makhdoom Sabir
  • Muhammad Dildar Gogi
  • Muhammad Asif Farooq
  • Yacoub Ahmad Batta
Original Article
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Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as an alternative strategy for the sustainable control of Nilaparvata lugens. Three species of EPF, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii, were tested against N. lugens with two suspensions of each tested EPF applied in different treatments. The observed mortality of N. lugens adults during the overall exposure period for the lowest and highest concentrations of each EPF ranged from 0–100%. At both highest and lowest concentrations of EPF, when sprayed on adult, the mortality of N. lugens was higher as compared to when sprayed on the stem pieces as food. A higher mortality rate was observed when the stem pieces were absent than when stem pieces were present. Maximum percent mortality of N. lugens was recorded due to the spray of highest concentration of M. anisopliae on only stem pieces (82.67%) and on adult N. lugens provided with stem pieces as food (93.33%) after 14 days of exposure interval. On the other hand, B. bassiana and L. lecanii were also responsible to cause more than 50% mortality of N. lugens in both treatments after 14 days of exposure interval. Results also indicated that maximum and minimum percent mycosis and sporulation from dead cadavers of N. lugens were recorded in both conidial suspensions of L. lecanii and M. anisopliae, respectively, in all treatments. The high efficacy levels recorded in the current study indicates that M. anisopliae can be effective biological control agents against N. lugens.

Keywords

Rice stem Nilaparvata lugens Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae Lecanicillium lecanii Biocontrol agents Virulence 

Wirksamkeit entomopathogener Pilze zur Bekämpfung der Braunrückigen Reiszikade Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) unter kontrollierten Bedingungen

Zusammenfassung

Die aktuelle Studie wurde durchgeführt, um die Wirksamkeit entomopathogener Pilze (EPF) als alternative Strategie zur nachhaltigen Bekämpfung von Nilaparvata lugens zu bewerten. Drei EPF-Arten, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae und Lecanicillium lecanii, wurden gegen N. Lugens getestet, wobei zwei Suspensionen von jedem getesteten EPF in verschiedenen Behandlungen angewendet wurden. Die beobachtete Mortalität von adulten N. lugens während des gesamten Expositionszeitraums für die niedrigste und höchste Konzentration jedes EPF lag zwischen 0 und 100 %. Sowohl bei der höchsten als auch bei der niedrigsten EPF-Konzentration war die Mortalität von N. lugens beim Sprühen auf Adulte höher als beim Sprühen auf Stängelteile als Nahrung. Die Mortalität war höher, wenn Stängelteile vorhanden waren als wenn keine Stängelteile vorhanden waren. Die maximale prozentuale Mortalität von N. lugens wurde nach 14-tägiger Exposition erreicht durch das Sprühen mit der höchsten Konzentration von M. anisopliae nur auf Stängelteile (82.67 %) und auf adulte N. lugens, die mit Stängelteilen als Nahrung (93.33 %) versorgt wurden. Andererseits waren B. bassiana und L. lecanii auch dafür verantwortlich, dass bei beiden Behandlungen nach 14 Tagen Exposition eine Mortalität von mehr als 50 % bei N. lugens auftrat. Die Ergebnisse zeigten auch, dass die maximale und minimale prozentuale Mykose und Sporulation von toten Körpern von N. lugens in beiden konidialen Suspensionen von L. Lecanii und M. anisopliae bei allen Behandlungen registriert wurden. Die in der aktuellen Studie festgestellte hohe Wirksamkeit weist darauf hin, dass M. anisopliae ein wirksames biologisches Bekämpfungsmittel gegen N. lugens sein kann.

Schlüsselwörter

Reisstängel Nilaparvata lugens Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium Anisopliae Lecanicillium lecanii Biokontrollmittel Virulenz 

Notes

Author Contribution

B. Atta, M. Rizwan and A.M. Sabir planned the research and designed the methodology; B. Atta conducted the experiments; B. Atta and M. Rizwan wrote the manuscript; M.D. Gogi and M.A. Farooq statistically analyzed the data; A.M. Sabir, M.D. Gogi, M.A. Farooq and Y.A. Batta reviewed the manuscript and gave suggestions and comments for its improvement. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

B. Atta, M. Rizwan, A.M. Sabir, M.D. Gogi, M.A. Farooq and Y.A. Batta declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bilal Atta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Rizwan
    • 1
  • Arshed Makhdoom Sabir
    • 1
  • Muhammad Dildar Gogi
    • 2
  • Muhammad Asif Farooq
    • 2
  • Yacoub Ahmad Batta
    • 3
  1. 1.Rice Research InstituteKala Shah KakuPakistan
  2. 2.Integrated Pest Management Cell, Department of EntomologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Plant ProtectionAn-Najah National UniversityNablusState of Palestine

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