Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Glyoxalase Systems by Exogenous Osmolytes Confers Thermotolerance in Brassica napus

  • Mirza HasanuzzamanEmail author
  • Kamrun Nahar
  • M. Iqbal R. Khan
  • Jubayer Al Mahmud
  • M. Mahabub Alam
  • Masayuki Fujita
Original Article


In the current study, the beneficial role of proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) in alleviating high temperature (HT) stress was investigated in Brassica napus L. (rapeseed) seedlings. Ten-d-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with and/or without 2 mM Pro and 2 mM GB and exposed to 38/28 °C day/night (16 and 8 h) temperature for 24 and 48 h. Heat stress induced high amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipoxygenase (LOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Exogenous Pro and GB addition in HT-affected plants increased the levels of ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and their redox pool. Exogenous Pro and GB increased functions of AsA-GSH pathways enzymes along with catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in HT exposed plants. The enhanced antioxidant defense system by supplementation of Pro and GB helped to reduce oxidative stress and photosynthetic pigments damage caused by HT-induced stress. High methylglyoxal (MG) content decreased upon exogenous Pro and GB application along with enhanced activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and Gly II enzymes in HT-stressed plants. Applied Pro and GB under HT stress enhanced endogenous Pro level further to prevent excess water loss and also improved relative water content. Thus, Pro- and/or GB-induced regulatory interactions between ROS and MG detoxification systems may be a useful approach for the reversal of HT-induced oxidative stress.


Abiotic stress Extreme temperature Methylglyoxal Osmolytes ROS 



Ascorbate oxidase


Ascorbate peroxidase


Ascorbate/ascorbic acid








Dehydroascorbate reductase

Gly I

Glyoxalase I

Gly II

Glyoxalase II


Glutathione reductase


Reduced glutathione


Oxidized glutathione


Glutathione peroxidase


Glutathione S-transferase








MDHA reductase




2-Nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid


Reactive oxygen species


Relative water content




Sodium nitroprusside


Thiobarbituric acid


Trichloroacetic acid

Die Regulierung des Stoffwechsels reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies und der Glyoxalasesysteme durch exogene Osmolyten führt zu einer Wärmetoleranz bei Brassica napus


In der aktuellen Studie wurde die positive Rolle von Prolin (Pro) und Glycinbetain (GB) bei der Linderung von Stress bei hoher Temperatur (HT) bei Brassica napus L. (Raps)-Setzlingen untersucht. Zehn Tage alte Rapssamen-Sämlinge wurden mit und/oder ohne 2 mM Pro und 2 mM GB behandelt und einer Temperatur von 38/28 °C Tag/Nacht (16 und 8 h) für 24 und 48 h ausgesetzt. Die Hitzebelastung induzierte hohe Menge an Wasserstoffperoxid (H2O2), Lipoxygenase (LOX) und Melondialdehyd (MDA). Die Zugabe von Pro und GB in HT-betroffenen Pflanzen erhöhte die Ascorbat (AsA)-Level und reduzierte Glutathion (GSH) und deren Redoxpool. Exogenes Pro und GB erhöhten die Funktionen der Enzyme der AsA-GSH-Stoffwechselwege, wie Katalase (CAT), Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) und Glutathionperoxidase (GPX) in HT-exponierten Pflanzen. Das verbesserte antioxidative Abwehrsystem durch die Supplementierung von Pro und GB trug dazu bei, oxidativen Stress und photosynthetische Pigmentschäden zu reduzieren, die durch HT-induzierten Stress verursacht wurden. Der hohe Methylglyoxal (MG)-Gehalt sank bei exogener Pro- und GB-Anwendung durch die erhöhten Aktivitäten von Glyoxalase-I- (Gly I) und Gly-II-Enzymen in HT-gestressten Pflanzen. Das applizierte Pro und GB unter HT-Stress erhöhten den endogenen Pro-Wert weiter, um einen übermäßigen Wasserverlust zu verhindern und den relativen Wassergehalt zu verbessern. Pro- und/oder GB-induzierte regulatorische Wechselwirkungen zwischen ROS- und MG-Entgiftungssystemen können daher ein nützlicher Ansatz für die Umkehrung von HT-induziertem oxidativem Stress sein.


Abiotischer Stress Extreme Temperatur Methylglyoxal Osmolyten ROS 


Conflict of interest

M. Hasanuzzaman, K. Nahar, M.I.R. Khan, J.A. Mahmud, M.M. Alam and M. Fujita declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kamrun Nahar
    • 2
  • M. Iqbal R. Khan
    • 3
  • Jubayer Al Mahmud
    • 4
  • M. Mahabub Alam
    • 1
  • Masayuki Fujita
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversitySher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207Bangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversitySher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207Bangladesh
  3. 3.Plant System Biology Laboratory, Department of BotanyJamia HamdardNew Delhi-110062India
  4. 4.Department of Agroforestry and Environmental ScienceSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversitySher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207Bangladesh
  5. 5.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityMiki-cho, Kita-gunJapan

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