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QoI Fungicide Resistance Mutations in Alternaria solani and Alternaria alternata are Fully Established in Potato Growing Areas in Bavaria and Dual Resistance against SDHI Fungicides is Upcoming

  • Mathias Nottensteiner
  • Carolin Absmeier
  • Michael ZellnerEmail author
Original Article
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Abstract

Alternaria leaf spots caused by Alternaria solani and Alternaria alternata are a major foliar disease of potatoes. Reduced sensitivity of A. solani and A. alternata towards Quinone outside inhibitors (QoI) fungicides has been observed in Europe. QoI-insensitive A. alternata isolates carry a G143A amino acid exchange caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the cytochrome b gene. A. solani evolved a similar F129L mutation. A shift from the predominant A. solani genotype I to genotype II, which was exclusively associated with the F129L mutation, was observed in Germany after QoI approval for Alternaria control. Here, we found QoI mutations to be highly abundant in A. solani and A. alternata field isolates, collected in 2016 in Bavaria, located in southeastern Germany. The frequency of the F129L mutation, but not of A. solani genotype II, was higher than in the last available study. This might be due to that we also found the F129L mutation in genotype I, indicating QoI resistance progression through the previously unaffected genotype. In contrast to previous data, QoI mutations were present in all examined areas. An analysis of SNP diversity pointed to the region of Lower Bavaria as a hotspot for F129L mutation evolution. Reduced sensitivity of Alternaria spp. towards succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI) fungicides is an emerging issue in Europe. We observed the presence of SDHI mutations, but only in combination with QoI mutations, indicating a further adaption to applied fungicides and a selection for dual fungicide resistance.

Keywords

Alternaria alternata Alternaria solani Fungicide Resistance Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI) Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHI) Potatoes 

Umfangreiche Verbreitung von QoI-Fungizidresistenzmutationen in Alternaria solani und Alternaria alternata in bayerischen Kartoffelanbaugebieten und anfängliches Auftreten von dualen Resistenzen gegen SDHI-Fungizide

Zusammenfassung

Die durch Alternaria solani und Alternaria alternata verursachten Dürr- und Sprühflecken sind eine bedeutende Blattkrankheit der Kartoffel. In Europa wurde eine reduzierte Sensitivität von A. solani und A. alternata gegen Fungizide der Quinone-outside-Inhibitoren (QoI)-Wirkstoffgruppe beobachtet. QoI-insensitive A. alternata Isolate zeigen einen G143A Aminosäurenaustausch, der durch eine Punktmutation (SNP) im Cytochrom b Gen verursacht wird. A. solani entwickelte mit F129L eine ähnliche Mutation. In Deutschland wurde eine Verschiebung vom vorherrschenden A. solani Genotyp I zum Genotyp II, in dem ausschließlich die F129L-Mutation auftrat, beobachtet, nachdem QoI-Präparate für die Alternaria-Kontrolle zugelassen waren. QoI-Mutationen waren in den in dieser Arbeit untersuchten A. solani und A. alternata Feldisolaten, die im Jahr 2016 in Bayern gesammelt wurden, äußerst häufig. Im Vergleich zur letzten verfügbaren Studie nahm die Häufigkeit der F129L-Mutation insgesamt zu, nicht jedoch die Häufigkeit des A. solani Genotyps II. Da wir die F129L-Mutation auch in Genotyp I gefunden haben, könnte das auf eine zusätzliche Ausbreitung der F129L-Mutation durch den bisher nicht betroffenen Genotyp hindeuten. Zudem waren nun, im Gegensatz zu einer früheren Studie, QoI-Mutationen in allen untersuchten Gebieten nachweisbar. Eine Analyse der SNP-Diversität deutete auf die Region Niederbayern als Hotspot für die Evolution von F129L-Mutationen hin. Eine reduzierte Sensitivität von Alternaria spp. gegen Fungizide aus der Wirkstoffgruppe der Succinat-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitoren (SDHI) ist ein aufkommendes Problem in Europa. Wir konnten SDHI-Mutationen nachweisen, allerdings nur in Kombination mit QoI-Mutationen. Das könnte eine fortschreitende Anpassung an angewandte Fungizidkombinationen und eine Selektion von doppelter Fungizidresistenz andeuten.

Schlüsselwörter

Alternaria alternata Alternaria solani Fungizidresistenz Quinone-outside-Inhibitoren (QoI) Succinat-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitoren (SDHI) Kartoffeln 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the colleagues from the Bavarian State agricultural offices for collecting Alternaria diseased potato leaves.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

M. Nottensteiner, C. Absmeier and M. Zellner declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10343_2019_475_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (310 kb)
Supplementary Table 1: List of A. alternata field isolates
10343_2019_475_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (383 kb)
Supplementary Table 2: List of A. solani field isolates

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathias Nottensteiner
    • 1
  • Carolin Absmeier
    • 1
  • Michael Zellner
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Plant ProtectionBavarian State Research Center for AgricultureFreisingGermany

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