Gesunde Pflanzen

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 19–24 | Cite as

Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Azadirachtin indica Seed Extract on the Development of Spotted Bollworm Earias vittella (Fab.)

  • Asim Gulzar
  • Muhammad Majad Ali
  • Muhammad Tariq
  • Imran Bodlah
  • Kaleem TariqEmail author
  • Asad Ali
Original Article


Spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fab), is an agricultural cotton pest. In Pakistan, Earias vittella (Fab) has developed resistance to various groups of insecticides. In the present study, the effect of an extract of Azadirachtin indica in different solvents on second instar larvae of E. vittella was evaluated in laboratory studies for toxicity as well as lethal and sublethal effect. The results indicated that methanol-based extract was the most effective to control E. vittella, followed by ethanol extract. The lethal and sublethal concentration of methanol-based extract of A. indica increased larval and pupal duration as compared to control. The percent pupation, adult emergence, and pupal weight were decreased in treated populations as compared to control populations. The esterase activities and total protein content of the treated E. vittella were also reduced as compared to controls. The results of this study could be useful in an integrated pest management program for the management of E. vittella.


Biological control Cotton pest Integrated pest management Mating success Protein contents 

Letale und subletale Wirkungen von Niembaum-Samenextrakten (Azadirachtin indica) auf die Entwicklung des Baumwollschädlings Earias vittella (Fab.)


Earias vittella (Fab) ist ein landwirtschaftlicher Baumwollschädling. In Pakistan hat Earias vittella (Fab) eine Resistenz gegen verschiedene Gruppen von Insektiziden entwickelt. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde der Einfluss eines Extrakts aus Azadirachtin indica (Niembaum) in verschiedenen Lösungsmitteln auf die Larven von E. vittella im zweiten Stadium unter Laborbedingungen in Hinblick auf Toxizität, letale und subletale Wirkungen untersucht. Als Ergebnis erwies sich der Extrakt auf Methanolbasis als der wirksamste bei der Bekämpfung von E. vittella, der zweitwirksamste war ein Ethanolextrakt. Die letale und subletale Konzentration des Methanolextrakts von A. indica erhöhte die Dauer des Larven- und Puppenstadiums im Vergleich zur Kontrolle. Der Prozentsatz der Verpuppung sowie der Entwicklung von ausgewachsenen Insekten und das Gewicht der Puppen verringerten sich in den behandelten Populationen im Vergleich zu den Kontrollpopulationen. Die Esteraseaktivität und der Gesamtproteingehalt der behandelten E. vittella waren im Vergleich zur Kontrolle ebenfalls vermindert. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie könnten für integrierte Schädlingsbekämpfungsprogramme zur Beherrschung von E. vittella nützlich sein.


Biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung Baumwollschädling Integriertes Schädlingsbekämpfungsprogramm Paarungserfolg Eiweißgehalt 


Conflict of interest

A. Gulzar, M. M. Ali, M. Tariq, I. Bodlah, K. Tariq, and A. Ali declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asim Gulzar
    • 1
  • Muhammad Majad Ali
    • 1
  • Muhammad Tariq
    • 1
  • Imran Bodlah
    • 1
  • Kaleem Tariq
    • 2
    Email author
  • Asad Ali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureAbdul Wali Khan University MardanKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan

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