Advertisement

European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 137, Issue 5, pp 707–718 | Cite as

A continuum of dead wood with various habitat elements maintains the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in an old-growth boreal forest

  • Anna Ruokolainen
  • Ekaterina Shorohova
  • Reijo Penttilä
  • Vera Kotkova
  • Helena Kushnevskaya
Original Paper
  • 215 Downloads

Abstract

Evidence on habitat associations of threatened wood-inhabiting species in boreal forests may contribute to a better understanding of their ecology and conservation needs. We examined the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungal communities in an old-growth boreal forest with high substrate availability and continuity based on repeated surveys of fruit bodies. The number of species in morphological and functional groups in relation to coarse woody debris (CWD) attributes was estimated with generalized linear models. Additionally, we calculated species interaction networks of CWD attributes and fungal species. The composition of fungal communities was analysed using a non-metric multidimensional scaling with subsequent environmental fitting. Old conifer (especially spruce) logs and large aspen logs with branches represented the most important substrates for the red-listed species and the indicator species of old-growth boreal forests. Among “dynamic” CWD attributes such as time since tree death, decay class and stage of epixylic succession, the latter was the most important indicator of diversity of all species and their morphological and functional groups. The interaction network provided evidence of the importance of tree species diversity for fungal diversity. The composition of fungal communities was tree species specific and related to dynamic attributes, bark cover and diameter of logs. Our results suggest the importance of a continuum of dead wood from different tree species with a variety of niches such as branches, exposed wood, fragmented and complete cover of bark and patches of epixylic vegetation to maintain the assemblages of wood-inhabiting fungi in an old-growth boreal forest.

Keywords

Brown-rot Coarse woody debris Decomposition Diversity Epixylic Fruit body Polypores White-rot 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (15-14-10023). We cordially thank the staff of Strict Nature Reserve “Kivach” for organizing the fieldwork on the territory. Ekaterina Kapitsa, Aleksej Polevoi and Anastasia Mamaj helped with selecting the sample plots, selecting and dating the logs as well as with creating the database. Carla Burton revised the language.

Supplementary material

10342_2018_1135_MOESM1_ESM.docx (149 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 148 kb)

References

  1. Abrego N, Bässler C, Christensen M, Heilmann-Clausen J (2015) Implications of reserve size and forest connectivity for the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in Europe. Biol Conserv 191:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrego N, Halme P, Purhonen J, Ovaskainen O (2016) Fruit body based inventories in wood-inhabiting fungi: should we replicate in space or time? Fungal Ecol 20:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahti T, Hämet-Ahti L, Jalas J (1968) Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Ann Bot Fenn 5:169–211Google Scholar
  4. Bader P, Jansson S, Jonsson BG (1995) Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratum decline in selectively logged boreal spruce forests. Biol Conserv 72:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bässler C, Müller J, Dzlock F, Brandl R (2010) Effects of resource availability and climate on the diversity on wood-decaying fungi. J Ecol 98:822–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bässler C, Müller J, Svoboda M, Lepšová A, Hahn Ch, Holzer H, Pouska V (2012) Diversity of wood-decaying fungi under different disturbance regimes—a case study from spruce mountain forests. Biodivers Conserv 21(1):33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaser L, Prati D, Senn-Irlet B, Fischer M (2013) Effects of forest management on the diversity of deadwood-inhabiting fungi in Central European forests. For Ecol Manag 304:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Blüthgen N (2006) Measuring specialization in species interaction networks. BMC Ecol 6:6–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boddy L (2001) Fungal community ecology and wood decomposition process in angiosperms: from standing tree to complete decay of coarse woody debris. Ecol Bull 49:43–57Google Scholar
  10. Brūmelis G, Oļehnoviča E, Šūba U, Treimane A, Inne S, Zviedre E, Elferts D, Dakša M, Tjarve D (2017) Bryophyte and polypore richness and indicators in relation to type, age and decay stage of coarse woody debris of Picea abies. Environ Exp Biol 15:95–103Google Scholar
  11. Fedorchuk VN, Neshataev VYu, Kuznetsova ML (2005) Forest ecosystems of the north-western regions of Russia: typology, dynamics, management features. StP, p 382 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Fedorets NG, Morozova RM, Bakhmet ON, Solodovnikov AN (2006) Пoчвы и пoчвeнный пoкpoв зaпoвeдникa “Кивaч” (The soils and soil cover of the Kivach Strict Nature Reserve, in Russian with English summary). Nature Kivach State Reserve Trans Karelian Res Cent RAS 10:3–34Google Scholar
  13. Gärdenfors U (2005) The 2005 red list of Swedish species. Swedish Species Information Centre, SLU, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  14. Halme P, Kotiaho J (2012) The importance of timing and number of surveys in fungal biodiversity research. Biodivers Conserv 21:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harmon ME et al (1986) Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Adv Ecol Res 15:133–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heilmann-Clausen J (2001) A gradient analysis of communities of macrofungi and slime moulds on decaying beech logs. Mycol Res 105:575–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heilmann-Clausen J, Christensen M (2005) Wood-inhabiting macrofungi in Danish beech-forests—conflicting diversity patterns and their implications in a conservation perspective. Biol Conserv 122:633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heilmann-Clausen J, Aude E, Christensen M (2005) Cryptogam communities on decaying deciduous wood—does tree species diversity matter? Biodivers Conserv 14:2061–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heilmann-Clausen J, Aude E, van Dort K, Christensen M, Piltaver A, Veerkamp M, Walleyn R, Siller I, Standovár T, Òdor P (2014) Communities of wood-inhabiting bryophytes and fungi on dead beech logs in Europe—reflecting substrate quality or shaped by climate and forest conditions? J Biogeogr 41:2269–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Høiland K, Bendiksen E (1997) Biodiversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a boreal coniferous forest in Sør-Trøndelag County, Central Norway. Nord J Bot 16:643–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hottola J, Ovaskainen O, Siitonen J (2009) A unified measure of the number, volume and diversity of dead trees and the response of fungal communities. J Ecol 97:1320–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Index Fungorum. CABI Database. URL: http://www.indexfungorum.org. Accessed 22 Mar 2017
  23. Ivanter E, Kuznetsov O (eds.) (2007) Kpacнaя книгa Кapeлии (Red Data Book of Republic of Karelia, in Russian). Petrozavodsk, p 364Google Scholar
  24. Jönsson MT, Edman M, Jonsson BG (2008) Colonization and extinction patterns of wood-decaying fungi in a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest. J Ecology 96:1065–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Junninen K, Komonen A (2011) Conservation ecology of boreal polypores: a review. Biol Conserv 144:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Junninen K, Similä M, Kouki J, Kotiranta H (2006) Assemblages of wood inhabiting fungi along the gradients of succession and naturalness in boreal pine dominated forests in Fennoscandia. Ecography 29:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Junninen K, Penttilä R, Martikainen P (2007) Fallen retention aspen trees on clear-cuts can be important habitats for red-listed polypores: a case study in Finland. Biodivers Conserv 16:475–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Küffer N, Senn-Irlet B (2005) Influence of forest management on the species richness and composition of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in Swiss forests. Biodivers Conserv 14:2419–2435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kushnevskaya A, Mirin D, Shorohova E (2007) Patterns of epixylic vegetation on spruce logs in late-successional boreal forests. Forest Ecol Manage 250:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lindblad I (1998) Wood-inhabiting fungi on fallen logs of Norway spruce: relations to forest management and substrate quality. Nord J Bot 18:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lonsdale D, Pautasso M, Holdenrieder O (2008) Wood-decaying fungi in the forest: conservation needs and management options. Eur J Res 127:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Niemelä T (2016) Suomen käävät—the polypores of Finland. Norrlinia 31:1–430Google Scholar
  33. Norden J, Penttilä R, Siitonen J, Tomppo E, Ovaskainen O (2013) Specialist species of wood-inhabiting fungi struggle while generalists thrive in fragmented boreal forests. J Ecol 101:701–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Szoecs E, Wagner H (2016) vegan: Community Ecology Package. Ordination methods, diversity analysis and other functions for community and vegetation ecologists. Version 2.3-3. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html
  35. Ovaskainen O, Schigel D, Ali-Kovero H, Auvinen P, Paulin L, Norden B, Norden J (2013) Combining high-throughput sequencing with fruitbody surveys reveals contrasting life-history strategies in fungi. The ISME Journal 7:1696–1709CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Penttilä R, Siitonen J, Kuusinen M (2004) Polypore diversity in managed and old-growth boreal Picea abies forests in southern Finland. Biol Conserv 117:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Penttilä R, Lindgren M, Miettinen O, Rita H, Hanski I (2006) Consequences of forest fragmentation for polyporous fungi at two spatial scales. Oikos 114:225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Penttilä R, Junninen K, Punttila P, Siitonen J (2013) Effects of forest restoration by fire on polypores depend strongly on time since disturbance—A case study from Finland based on a 23-year monitoring period. Forest Ecol Manag 310:508–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pouska V, Svoboda M, Lepšová A (2010) The diversity of wood-decaying fungi in relation to changing site conditions in an old-growth mountain spruce forest, Central Europe. Eur J Res 129:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pouska V, Lepš J, Svoboda M, Lepšová A (2011) How do log characteristics influence the occurrence of wood fungi in a mountain spruce forest? Fungal Ecol 4:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pouska V, Macek P, Zibarova L (2016) The relation of fungal communities to wood microclimate in a mountain spruce forest. Fungal Ecol 21:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/
  43. Rajala T, Peltoniemi M, Hantula J, Mäkipää R, Pennanen T (2011) Fungal RNA reveals succession of active fungi during the decay of Norway spruce logs. Fungal Ecol 4:359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rajala T, Tuomivirta T, Pennanen T, Mäkipää R (2015) Habitat models of wood-inhabiting fungi along a decay gradient of Norway spruce logs. Fungal Ecol 18:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rassi P, Hyvärinen E, Juslén A, Mannerkoski I (eds) (2010) The 2010 Red List of Finnish Species. Ministry of the Environment, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, p 685Google Scholar
  46. Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1988) Fungal decomposition of wood: its biology and ecology. Bath Press, Bath, p 587Google Scholar
  47. Renvall P (1995) Community structure and dynamics of wood-rotting fungi on decomposing conifer trunks in northern Finland. Karstenia 35:1–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruokolainen A, Manninen O (2014) Aphyllophoroid fungi of Zaonezhye Peninsula. Biogeography, landscapes, ecosystems and species of Zaonezhye Peninsula, in Lake Onega, Russian Karelia. Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute. Vol. 40. Helsinki, pp 233–256Google Scholar
  49. Ryvarden L, Gilbertson RL (1993) European Polypores, Part 1. Abortiporus—Lindtneria. Synopsis Fungorum, vol. 6. Fungiflora, Oslo, pp 1–387Google Scholar
  50. Ryvarden L, Gilbertson RL (1994) European Polypores, Part 2. Meripilus—Tyromyces. Synopsis Fungorum, vol. 7. Fungiflora, Oslo, pp 388–743Google Scholar
  51. Shorohova E, Kapitsa E (2014) Influence of the substrate and ecosystem attributes on the decomposition rates of coarse woody debris in European boreal forests. For Ecol Manag 356:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shorohova EV, Shorohov AA (2001) Coarse woody debris dynamics and stores in a boreal virgin spruce forest. Ecol Bull 49:129–137Google Scholar
  53. Shorohova E, Kapitsa E, Kazartsev I, Romashkin I, Polevoi A, Kushnevskaya H (2016) Tree species traits are the predominant control on the decomposition rate of tree log bark in a mesic old-growth boreal forest. Forest Ecol Manag 377:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Siitonen J, Penttilä R, Kotiranta H (2001) Coarse woody debris, polyporous fungi and saproxylic insects in an old-growth spruce forest in Vodlozero National Park, Russian Karelia. Ecol Bull 49:231–242Google Scholar
  55. Skorohodova SB (2008) The climate of “Kivach” Reserve. In: Proceedings of the National Nature Reserve “Kivach” Vol 4 pp 3–34Google Scholar
  56. Stokland J (2001) The coarse woody debris profile: an archive of the recent forest history and an important biodiversity indicator. Ecol Bull 49:71–83Google Scholar
  57. Stokland JN, Larsson K-H (2011) Legacies from natural forest dynamics: different effects of forest management on wood-inhabiting fungi in pine and spruce forests. For Ecol Manag 261:1707–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tikkanen O-P, Martikainen P, Hyvärinen E, Junninen K, Kouki J (2006) Red-listed boreal forest species of Finland: associations with forest structure, tree species and decaying wood. Ann Zool Fennici 43:373–383Google Scholar
  59. Ylisirniö A-L, Penttilä R, Berglund H, Hallikainen V, Isaeva L, Kauhanen H, Koivula M, Mikkola K (2012) Dead wood and polypore diversity in natural post-fire succession forests and managed stands–Lessons for biodiversity management in boreal forests. Ecol Manag 286:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Research Institute of the Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of SciencePetrozavodskRussia
  2. 2.Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of SciencesSaint PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.Saint-Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia
  5. 5.Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)HelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations