Autodissemination of pyriproxyfen as a method for controlling the house fly Musca domestica
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House fly (Musca domestica) control is a major challenge in animal agriculture. Here, we tested the feasibility of applying pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect-growth regulator that controls house flies effectively, using autodissemination methods, in which the flies themselves deliver PPF to their oviposition sites. First, we tried baiting gravid female flies to walk-through stations, where flies would self-treat with PPF and distribute it. This concept worked well in laboratory and indoor cage experiments, but not in the field, as flies appeared reluctant to alight on and collect PPF. Therefore, we tested a different concept of actively coating flies with PPF and then releasing them in different proportions. This concept was tested in laboratory experiments with various manure types in the USA and in Israel. Twenty percent of PPF-coated flies (corresponding to ≥ 2.3 mg/kg PPF) were sufficient to get high control levels (~ 90%) in most of the tested manure types in the US study. Very similar results were obtained in the experiments in Israel but only with poultry manure, whereas low control levels were obtained when cow manure was used. We conclude that autodissemination of PPF using the collect–treat–release “active coating” concept may be practical, depending on manure type, and should be further tested in the field.
KeywordsInsect-growth regulator Integrated pest management Animal manure
We thank Mr. Andy Resnick (Agan-Adama, Israel) for supplying us with technical PPF (on the Israeli side). Author CJG thanks Dana Johnson and Roxie White for assisting with the bioassays in the USA. The research was supported by the United States—Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (BARD), Grant # 4701-14R to CJG and EC.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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