Insecticide resistance in the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta: patterns, spread, mechanisms, management and outlook
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The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is an invasive pest difficult to control. Insecticide application is quite common and remains the prevalent control method particularly in open-field cultivation systems. As a result, insecticide resistance to many chemical classes of insecticides has been described both in South America and in Europe. The development of insecticide resistance is relatively fast in this species, and the main mechanisms involved are altered target-site sensitivity and/or enhanced detoxification, depending on the chemical class. However, insecticide resistance mechanisms do not differ between South America and Europe and are mainly due to simple genotype variations leading to high levels of resistance. The presence of resistance alleles at low frequency, especially against newer chemistry, is of major concern, as they tend to spread with the invasions making tomato pinworm particularly difficult to control. The monitoring methods and management programmes developed for the species benefited from the pro-activity of the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee and its country groups, particularly in Brazil and Spain. Bioassay methods were developed, resistance monitoring activities initiated and resistance management guidance was provided. The implementation of integrated control programmes and appropriate resistance management strategies as part of such programs is of utmost importance to keep tomato pinworm infestations under economic damage thresholds, thus guaranteeing sustainable yields.
KeywordsInvasive species Insecticide resistance patterns Control failure Resistance management Target-site alteration Insecticide detoxification
We thank Drs. A. Biondi and N. Desneux for the invitation to prepare the present review and to the several funding agencies that have been providing financial support for the authors’ research on insecticide resistance in the tomato pinworm.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were considered in the present study.
The authors of this manuscript accept that the paper is submitted for publication in the Journal of Pest Science, and report that this paper has not been published or accepted for publication in another journal, nor is under consideration at another journal.
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