Photoperiodic and temperature control of nymphal growth and adult diapause induction in the invasive Caucasian population of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys
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Invasive pentatomid Halyomorpha halys recently arrived to the Black Sea region and began damaging agricultural and ornamental plants. We studied the effects of day length and temperature on the pre-adult development and diapause induction in H. halys from Sochi (Russia) under laboratory conditions (20, 24, and 28 °C and several photoperiods). The pre-adult development of H. halys was noticeably faster under L:D 12:12 compared with L:D 15:9. The sum of effective temperatures required for the pre-adult development was ca. 530 and 590 degree days under these two conditions, respectively, whereas the lower developmental thresholds were similar (ca. 13.3 °C). Adults of H. halys demonstrated a typical long-day-type photoperiodic response of facultative winter adult diapause induction: Short days (photophases of 12–15 h) induced diapause in all adults, whereas long days (with photophases longer than 15 h) promoted reproduction. The photoperiodic responses of diapause induction of females and males were very similar. At 24 °C, the threshold of the response was between 15 and 16 h. At 20 °C, even under the very long-day conditions (L:D 18:6) about 50% of adults entered diapause. Field records suggest that H. halys likely produces two generations per year in Sochi. Short days might accelerate nymphal growth of the second generation in August and then induce winter diapause in adults. Phenological studies and monitoring are needed for a better understanding of the adaptation process of this invasive pest to new conditions.
KeywordsAlien insects Day length Heteroptera Invasive pests Pentatomidae Phenology Photoperiodism Voltinism
The present study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 17-04-01486 for DLM), the EU COST Action FP1401 Global Warning (A global network of nurseries as early warning system against alien tree pests; http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/FP1401 for DLM), the Russian state research project AAAA-A17-117030310205-9 (for MYuD and SYaR), and The Innessa Charitable Foundation (for AKhS). We sincerely thank Dr. J.F. Esquivel (USDA, ARS, SPARC), Dr. K. Tsytsulina and anonymous reviewers for critical reading of the MS and helpful comments, Dr. K. Samartsev for photographs, and T.Yu. Moskaleva for assistance with the experiments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals (vertebrate) performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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