Advertisement

Habitat preference of Drosophila suzukii across heterogeneous landscapes

  • Giacomo Santoiemma
  • Fabio Trivellato
  • Valentino Caloi
  • Nicola Mori
  • Lorenzo Marini
Original Paper
  • 163 Downloads

Abstract

In temperate regions, generalist insect pests are expected to use multiple habitats and host plant species over the different seasons. Landscape composition and configuration can also provide a diversity of thermal resources and host plants that can modify insect activity and movement. Here, we described the seasonal spatial distribution of a destructive invasive pest, spotted wing drosophila (SWD), along a gradient of landscape composition (i.e. proportion of forest habitat) and configuration (i.e. length of forest edge). We selected a triplet of habitat patches (forest, vineyard and grassland) in 17 landscapes in North-eastern Italy characterised by different proportions of forest and forest edge length and monitored pest activity density for 1 year. We found that during the cold season, SWD mostly occupied forest habitats, which were suitable overwintering sites due to ideal microclimatic conditions. During plant-growing season, SWD occurred equally in the three habitats, probably due to warmer temperatures in open areas as well as high food and host availability. In summer, when high temperatures can be limiting, landscapes with large forest edge length presented an increase in activity density compared to landscapes with less amount of edges, irrespective of the total cover of forest. Large edge length indicated landscapes with high contact zones between forest and open habitats, probably favouring spillover of individuals in SWD. In the light of these results, pest control in crop fields located in landscapes with complex configurations can be particularly challenging. The high density in non-crop habitats suggests that this invasive species can have pervasive impact also on wild plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats.

Keywords

Forest Invasive pest Landscape configuration Spillover Vineyard 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the farmers who allowed us to carry out the experiments on their land. We thank Bioibérica S.A. Company and Michele Brardinelli for providing Suzukii Trap® attractant. We thank three anonymous reviewers for providing insightful comments that improved the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, DROPSA [Grant Number 613678]. GS received a grant from Aldo Gini Foundation (Padova).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals (vertebrates) performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_1052_MOESM1_ESM.docx (105 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 105 kb)

References

  1. Akaike H (2011) Akaike’s information criterion. In: International encyclopedia of statistical science. Springer, Berlin, pp 25–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04898-2_110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen JL, Manenti T, Sørensen JG, Macmillan H, Loeschcke V, Overgaard J (2015) How to assess Drosophila cold tolerance: chill coma temperature and lower lethal temperature are the best predictors of cold distribution limits. Funct Ecol 29:55–65.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asplen MK, Anfora G, Biondi A, Choi DS, Chu D, Daane KM, Gibert P, Gutierrez A, Hoelmer K, Hutchison W, Isaacs R, Jiang ZL, Kárpáti Z, Kimura MT, Pascual M, Philips CR, Plantamp C, Ponti L, Vétek G, Vogt H, Walton VM, Yu Y, Zappalà L, Desneux N (2015) Invasion biology of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): a global perspective and future priorities. J Pest Sci 88:469–494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0681-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton K (2016) MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.15.1. 1:18Google Scholar
  5. Bellamy DE, Sisterson MS, Walse SS (2013) Quantifying host potentials: indexing postharvest fresh fruits for spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. PLoS ONE 8:e61227.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061227 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger JS, Birkhofer K, Hanson HI, Hedlund K (2018) Landscape configuration affects herbivore–parasitoid communities in oilseed rape. J Pest Sci 91:1093–1105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-018-0965-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi FJJA, Booij CJH, Tscharntke T (2006) Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proc Biol Sci 273:1715–1727.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3530 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchi FJJA, Goedhart PW, Baveco JM (2008) Enhanced pest control in cabbage crops near forest in the Netherlands. Landsc Ecol 23:595–602.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9219-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biondi A, Traugott M, Desneux N (2016) Special issue on Drosophila suzukii: from global invasion to sustainable control. J Pest Sci 89:603–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blitzer EJ, Dormann CF, Holzschuh A, Klein AM, Rand TA, Tscharntke T (2012) Spillover of functionally important organisms between managed and natural habitats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 146:34–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Block W, Baust JG, Franks F, Johnston IA, Bale J (1990) Cold tolerance of insects and other arthropods [and discussion]. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 326:613–633.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1990.0035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burgess L (1981) Winter sampling to determine overwintering sites and estimate density of adult flea beetle pests of rape (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can Entomol 113:441–447.  https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent113441-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  14. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2004) Multimodel inference. Understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociol Methods Res 33:261–304.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124104268644 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cahenzli F, Bühlmann I, Daniel C, Fahrentrapp J (2018) The distance between forests and crops affects the abundance of Drosophila suzukii during fruit ripening, but not during harvest. Environ Entomol.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvy116 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Calabria G, Máca J, Bächli G, Serra L, Pascual M (2012) First records of the potential pest species Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Europe. J Appl Entomol 136:139–147.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01583.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chabert S, Allemand R, Poyet M, Eslin P, Gilbert P (2012) Ability of European parasitoids (Hymenoptera) to control a new invasive Asiatic pest, Drosophila suzukii. Biol Control 63:40–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2012.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daane KM, Wang X, Biondi A, Miller B, Miller JC, Riedl H, Shearer PW, Guerrieri E, Giorgini M, Buffington M, van Achterberg K, Song Y, Kang T, Yi H, Jung C, Dong Woon Lee DW, Chung B, Hoelmer KA, Walton VM (2016) First exploration of parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii in South Korea as potential classical biological agents. J Pest Sci 89:823–835.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0740-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deutsch CA, Tewksbury JJ, Huey RB, Sheldon KS, Ghalambor CK, Haak DC, Martin PR (2008) Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:6668–6672.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0709472105 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duflot R, Georges R, Ernoult A, Aviron S, Burel F (2014) Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits. Acta Oecol 56:19–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2014.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Enriquez T, Colinet H (2017) Basal tolerance to heat and cold exposure of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. PeerJ 5:e3112.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Ewers RM, Didham RK (2008) Pervasive impact of large-scale edge effects on a beetle community. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:5426–5429.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800460105 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:487–515.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gelman A (2008) Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations. Stat Med 27:2865–2873.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.3107 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. González E, Salvo A, Defagó MT, Valladares G (2016) A moveable feast: insects moving at the forest-crop interface are affected by crop phenology and the amount of forest in the landscape. PLoS ONE 11:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Google Inc. © (2017) Google Earth ProGoogle Scholar
  27. Gravesen E, Toft S (1987) Grass fields as reservoirs for polyphagous predators (Arthropoda) of aphids (Homopt., Aphididae). J Appl Entomol 104:461–473.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1987.tb00547.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamby KA, Bellamy DE, Chiu JC, Lee JC, Walton VM, Wiman NG, York RM, Biondi A (2016) Biotic and abiotic factors impacting development, behavior, phenology, and reproductive biology of Drosophila suzukii. J Pest Sci 89:605–619.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0756-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haro-Barchin E, Scheper J, Ganuza C, De Groot GA, Colombari F, van Kats R, Kleijn D (2018) Landscape-scale forest cover increases the abundance of Drosophila suzukii and parasitoid wasps. Basic Appl, EcolGoogle Scholar
  30. Hauser M (2011) A historic account of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the continental United States, with remarks on their identification. Pest Manag Sci 67:1352–1357.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hennig EI, Mazzi D (2018) Spotted wing drosophila in sweet cherry orchards in relation to forest characteristics, bycatch, and resource availability. Insects 9:118.  https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9030118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hermann A, Brunner N, Hann P, Wrbka T, Kromp B (2013) Correlations between wireworm damages in potato fields and landscape structure at different scales. J Pest Sci 86:41–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-012-0444-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hodkinson ID (2005) Terrestrial insects along elevation gradients: species and community responses to altitude. Biol Rev 80:489–513.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1464793105006767 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ioriatti C, Walton V, Dalton D, Anfora G, Grassi A, Maistri S, Mazzoni V (2015) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its potential impact to wine grapes during harvest in two cool climate wine grape production regions. J Econ Entomol 108:1148–1155.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karp DS, Chaplin-Kramer R, Meehan TD, Martin EA et al (2018) Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition. Proc Natl Acad Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1800042115 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kenis M, Tonina L, Eschen R, van der Sluis B, Sancassani M, Mori N, Haye T, Helsen H (2016) Non-crop plants used as hosts by Drosophila suzukii in Europe. J Pest Sci 89:735–748.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0755-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kimura MT (1988) Adaptations to temperate climates and evolution of overwintering strategies in the Drosophila melanogaster species group. Evolution (N Y) 42:1288–1297.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2409012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klick J, Yang WQ, Walton VM, Dalton DT, Hagler JR, Dreves AJ, Lee JC, Bruck DJ (2016) Distribution and activity of Drosophila suzukii in cultivated raspberry and surrounding vegetation. J Appl Entomol 140:37–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knoll V, Ellenbroek T, Romeis J, Collatz J (2017) Seasonal and regional presence of hymenopteran parasitoids of Drosophila in Switzerland and their ability to parasitize the invasive Drosophila suzukii. Sci Rep 7:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee JC, Bruck DJ, Dreves AJ, Ioriatti C, Vogt H, Baufeld P (2011) In focus: spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, across perspectives. Pest Manag Sci 67:1349–1351.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2271 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lukacs PM, Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2010) Model selection bias and Freedman’s paradox. Ann Inst Stat Math 62:117–125.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10463-009-0234-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marino PC, Landis DA (1996) Effect of landscape structure on parasitoid diversity and parasitism in agroecosystems. Ecol Appl 6:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Ene E (2012) FRAGSTATS v4: spatial pattern analysis program for categorical and continuous maps. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. https://www.umass.edu/landeco
  44. Mitsui H, Beppu K, Kimura MT (2010) Seasonal life cycles and resource uses of flower- and fruit-feeding drosophilid flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in central Japan. Entomol Sci 13:60–67.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8298.2010.00372.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nicholls CI, Parrella M, Altieri MA (2001) The effects of a vegetational corridor on the abundance and dispersal of insect biodiversity within a northern California organic vineyard. Landsc Ecol 16:133–146.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011128222867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pelton E, Gratton C, Isaacs R, van Timmeren S, Blanton A, Guédot C (2016) Earlier activity of Drosophila suzukii in high woodland landscapes but relative abundance is unaffected. J Pest Sci 89:725–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0733-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pelton E, Gratton C, Guédot C (2017) Susceptibility of cold hardy grapes to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J Appl Entomol 141:644–652.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Poyet M, Le Roux V, Gibert P, Meirland A, Prévost G, Eslin P, Chabrerie O (2015) The wide potential trophic niche of the asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii: the key of its invasion success in temperate Europe? PLoS ONE 10:e0142785.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142785 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. QGIS Development Team (2014) Quantum GIS geographic information systemGoogle Scholar
  50. R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
  51. Rolland C (2003) Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in alpine regions. J Clim 16:1032–1046.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016%3c1032:SASVOA%3e2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rossi Stacconi MV, Kaur R, Mazzoni V, Ometto L, Grassi A, Gottardello A, Rota-Stabelli O, Anfora G (2016) Multiple lines of evidence for reproductive winter diapause in the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii: useful clues for control strategies. J Pest Sci 89:689–700.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0753-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rossi Stacconi MV, Panel A, Baser N, Ioriatti C, Pantezzi T, Anfora G (2017) Comparative life history traits of indigenous Italian parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii and their effectiveness at different temperatures. Biol Control 112:20–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sakai M (2005) Cherry Drosophila suzukii, in primary color pest and disease encyclopedia. In: Rural Culture Association Japan (ed) Apples, cherries, European pears and walnuts, 2nd edn. Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo, pp 489–492Google Scholar
  55. Santoiemma G, Fioretto D, Corcos D, Mori N, Marini L (2018a) Spatial synchrony in Drosophila suzukii population dynamics along elevational gradients. Ecol Entomol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/en.12688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Santoiemma G, Mori N, Tonina L, Marini L (2018b) Semi-natural habitats boost Drosophila suzukii populations and crop damage in sweet cherry. Agric Ecosyst Environ 257:152–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Scheffers BR, Edwards DP, Diesmos A, Williams SE, Evans TA (2014) Microhabitats reduce animal’s exposure to climate extremes. Glob Chang Biol 20:495–503.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12439 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schellhorn NA, Bianchi FJJA, Hsu CL (2014) Movement of entomophagous arthropods in agricultural landscapes: links to pest suppression. Annu Rev Entomol 59:559–581.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-161952 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sears MW, Angilletta MJ (2015) Costs and benefits of thermoregulation revisited: both the heterogeneity and spatial structure of temperature drive energetic costs. Am Nat 185:E94–E102.  https://doi.org/10.1086/680008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Shearer PW, West JD, Walton VM, Brown PH, Svetec N, Chiu JC (2016) Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii to enhance winter survival. BMC Ecol 16:11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-016-0070-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Sivakoff FS, Rosenheim JA, Dutilleul P, Carrière Y (2013) Influence of the surrounding landscape on crop colonization by a polyphagous insect pest. Entomol Exp Appl 149:11–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Steingröver EG, Geertsema W, van Wingerden WKRE (2010) Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control: a transdisciplinary approach in the Hoeksche Waard (The Netherlands). Landsc Ecol 25:825–838.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-010-9489-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stephens AR, Asplen MK, Hutchison WD, Venette RC (2015) Cold hardiness of winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) adults. Environ Entomol 44:1619–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv134 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Tait G, Grassi A, Pfab F, Crava CM, Dalton DT, Magarey R, Ometto L, Vezzulli S, Rossi Stacconi MV, Gottardello A, Pugliese A, Firrao G, Walton VM, Anfora G (2018) Large-scale spatial dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in Trentino, Italy. J Pest Sci 91:1213–1224.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-018-0985-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tochen S, Dalton DT, Wiman N, Hamm C, Shearer PW, Walton VM (2014) Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry. Environ Entomol 43:501–510.  https://doi.org/10.1603/EN13200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tochen S, Walton VM, Lee JC (2016a) Impact of floral feeding on adult Drosophila suzukii survival and nutrient status. J Pest Sci 89:793–802.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0762-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tochen S, Woltz JM, Dalton DT, Lee JC, Wiman NG, Walton VM (2016b) Humidity affects populations of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in blueberry. J Appl Entomol 140:47–57.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tonina L, Grassi A, Caruso S, Mori N, Gottardello A, Anfora G, Giomi F, Vaccari G, Ioratti C (2017) Comparison of attractants for monitoring Drosophila suzukii in sweet cherry orchards in Italy. J Appl Entomol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tonina L, Mori N, Sancassani M, Dall’Ara P, Marini L (2018) Spillover of Drosophila suzukii between noncrop and crop areas: implications for pest management. Agric For Entomol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tscharntke T, Rand TA, Bianchi FJJA (2005) The landscape context of trophic interactions: insect spillover across the crop-noncrop interface. Ann Zool Fennici 42:421–432.  https://doi.org/10.2307/23735887 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tscharntke T, Karp DS, Chaplin-Kramer R, Batáry P et al (2016) When natural habitat fails to enhance biological pest control—five hypotheses. Biol Conserv 204:449–458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walsh DB, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Dreves AJ, Lee JC, Bruck DJ, Walton VM, O’Neal SD, Zalom FG (2011) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): invasive pest of ripening soft fruit expanding its geographic range and damage potential. J Integr Pest Manag 2:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1603/IPM10010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang XG, Stewart TJ, Biondi A, Chavez BA, Ingels C, Caprile J, Grant JA, Walton VM, Daane KM (2016) Population dynamics and ecology of Drosophila suzukii in Central California. J Pest Sci 89:701–712.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0747-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wiman NG, Walton VM, Dalton DT, Anfora G et al (2014) Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation. PLoS ONE 9:e106909.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106909 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Wiman NG, Dalton DT, Anfora G, Biondi A et al (2016) Drosophila suzukii population response to environment and management strategies. J Pest Sci 89:653–665.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0757-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Woltz JM, Lee JC (2017) Pupation behavior and larval and pupal biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii in the field. Biol Control 110:62–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wong JS, Cave AC, Lightle DM, Wf Mahaffee, Naranjo SE, Wiman NG, Woltz JM, Lee JC et al (2018) Drosophila suzukii flight performance reduced by starvation but not affected by humidity. J Pest Sci 91:1269–1278.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-018-1013-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DAFNAE-EntomologyUniversity of PadovaLegnaroItaly

Personalised recommendations