Multiple acaricide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae on hops
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The polyphagous pest Tetranychus urticae feeds on over 1100 plant species including highly valued economic crops such as hops (Humulus lupulus). In the key hop production region of the Pacific Northwest of the USA, T. urticae is one of the major arthropod pests. Over the years, T. urticae control has been dominated by the application of various acaricides. However, T. urticae quickly adapts to these acaricides by developing resistance. Here, we determined resistance ratios of T. urticae populations in hops to three acaricides: etoxazole, fenpyroximate, and spirodiclofen. The mechanisms underlying resistance to these and three other acaricides were investigated in 37 field-collected T. urticae populations using a comprehensive diagnostic approach. Our data showed that T. urticae populations exhibited complex adaptation patterns to acaricides. Resistance to abamectin, fenpyroximate, and spirodiclofen by enhanced target metabolic detoxification gene(s) was identified in 100%, 50%, and 20% of populations tested, respectively. Resistance to bifenthrin, bifenazate, and etoxazole by target site insensitivity was pervasive among tested populations. Our study provides new information in understanding the complexity of T. urticae adaptation to multiple acaricides, which will help in designing sustainable pest control strategies for T. urticae on hops and other economically valuable crops.
KeywordsAcaricide resistance Resistance ratio Molecular markers Target site insensitivity Metabolic detoxification
The authors thank Tora Brooks, Dan Groenendale, Peng Wilson, and members of the Agricultural Entomology lab of WSU IAREC at Prosser, WA, for their help with field mite collection. This research was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) (Award Number 2014-51181-22381), the Hop Research Council, the Washington Hop Commission, the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration. M.W. was supported by the Education Department of Fujian Province of China.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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