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Intercrop movement of heteropteran predators between alfalfa and maize examined by stable isotope analysis

  • F. Madeira
  • A. di Lascio
  • M. L. Costantini
  • L. Rossi
  • V. Rösch
  • X. Pons
Original Paper
  • 112 Downloads

Abstract

Alfalfa is a reservoir providing natural enemies to adjacent crops. However, whether these crops act only as receptors or also as donors is unknown. The pattern of movement between alfalfa and maize of Orius majusculus, Orius niger and Nabis provencalis and the role of both crops as “donor” or “receptor” were inferred through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Results show that all heteropteran species are able to move between crops, but the predators’ movement is species specific and the role of alfalfa and maize as “donor” or “receptor” varies. The movement is also affected by crop management practices such as alfalfa cutting. All heteropterans that colonized maize at its early stage came from alfalfa, but N. provencalis also moved back to alfalfa from maize. Alfalfa cutting triggers movement of heteropterans to maize, but the time when this practice is performed also affects the movement. Alfalfa cutting did not have consequences on the recolonization of alfalfa, and some of the heteropterans found during the alfalfa regrowth period seem to have remained within alfalfa (mainly N. provencalis) while others came from maize (mainly O. majusculus and O. niger). When maize was harvested or dry, O. majusculus moved to alfalfa later than the other two predators. Due to the movement capacity of heteropterans between alfalfa and maize and the variable role of both crops as “donor” or “receptor”, conservation biological control could be enhanced by including adjacent fields of alfalfa and maize or a mosaic of both crops at farm and landscape levels.

Keywords

Orius majusculus Orius niger Nabis provencalis Anthocoridae Nabidae Dispersal Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Cooperativa Pirenaica de La Seu d’Urgell and Josep Piqué for allowing us to use their fields for the experiments. We also thank Alejandro Juárez and Urs Kormann for statistics support and the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.

Funding

This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, projects AGL2008-02355 and AGL2011-23996, and the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research PRIN 2008WAFMX5. F. Madeira was also funded by a grant (BES-2009-020361) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all authors included in the study.

Supplementary material

10340_2018_1049_MOESM1_ESM.tif (366 kb)
Fig. S1. δ13C and δ15N (‰) values of Orius majusculus (Om, in black), O. niger (On, in green), other Orius (oO, in dark blue) and Nabis provencalis (Np, in red) sampled in adjacent alfalfa (full circles) and maize fields (open triangles) during the Maize early vegetative stage sampling period. The grey square and rhombus represent the δ13C and δ15N (‰) mean of alfalfa and maize, respectively. Coloured lines represent the isotopic range occupied by each predator (solid lines represent predators sampled in alfalfa, and dotted lines represent predators sampled in maize) (TIFF 365 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.6 mb)
Fig. S2. δ13C and δ15N (‰) values of Orius majusculus (Om, in black), O. niger (On, in green), Nabis provencalis (Np, in red) and Nabis sp. nymphs (Np nymph, in light blue) sampled in maize After alfalfa cutting; a) 3 days after the third cutting and b) 3 days after the fourth cutting. The grey square and rhombus represent the δ13C and δ15N (‰) mean of alfalfa and maize, respectively. Dotted coloured lines represent the isotopic range occupied by each predator sampled in maize (TIFF 1607 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM3_ESM.tif (763 kb)
Fig. S3. δ13C and δ15N (‰) values of Orius majusculus (Om, in black), O. niger (On, in green), other Orius (oO, in dark blue), Nabis provencalis (Np, in red) and Nabis sp. nymphs (Np nymph, in light blue) sampled in adjacent alfalfa (full circles) and maize fields (open triangles) After alfalfa regrowth; a) at the fourth and b) at the fifth alfalfa intercut. The grey square and rhombus represent the δ13C and δ15N (‰) mean of alfalfa and maize, respectively. Coloured lines represent the isotopic range occupied by each predator (solid lines represent predators sampled in alfalfa, and dotted lines represent predators sampled in maize) (TIFF 762 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM4_ESM.tif (909 kb)
Fig. S4. δ13C and δ15N (‰) values of Orius majusculus (Om, in black), O. niger (On, in green), other Orius (oO, in dark blue), Nabis provencalis (Np, in red) and Nabis sp. nymphs (Np nymph, in light blue) sampled in alfalfa After maize harvesting or drying. The grey square and rhombus represent the δ13C and δ15N (‰) mean of alfalfa and maize, respectively. Coloured lines represent the isotopic range occupied by each predator sampled in alfalfa (TIFF 909 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM5_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 13 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM6_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOCX 16 kb)
10340_2018_1049_MOESM7_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop and Forest Sciences, Agrotecnio CentreUniversitat de LleidaLleidaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Environmental BiologyUniversity of Rome “Sapienza”RomeItaly
  3. 3.Institute for Environmental ScienceUniversity of Koblenz-LandauLandauGermany

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