Variability in herbivore-induced defence signalling across different maize genotypes impacts significantly on natural enemy foraging behaviour
- 129 Downloads
‘Smart’ plants that release volatile defence compounds in response to pest damage, and which recruit beneficial natural enemies, offer an opportunity for exploiting biological control in future crop protection strategies. Using six maize genotypes, Zapalote Chico (‘landrace’), Mirt2A, Sintético Spodoptera (SS), L3, and two commercial hybrids BRS 4103 and BRS 1040, the aim of this work was to evaluate maize responses to larval damage from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major maize pest in Brazil, and the ability of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus to respond to HIPVs induced by S. frugiperda damage. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays with T. remus showed preferential responses to the S. frugiperda-induced volatiles of SS and BRS 4103 compared to constitutive volatiles of the same genotypes, but to none of the other genotypes tested. Chemical analysis of maize volatile extracts showed that SS produced more volatile compounds in response to S. frugiperda damage, followed by BRS 4103. In addition, higher levels of mono, homo-, or sesquiterpenes, together with green leaf volatiles (GLVs) were the most attractive blend for T. remus; however, there was no attraction when only GLVs were produced in higher levels. In summary, these results show that volatile defence signalling produced by maize plants due to S. frugiperda damage varies significantly depending on maize genotype and this variability influences T. remus foraging behaviour.
KeywordsInduced compounds Indirect defence Searching behaviour
We thank Isabela Grisi, Sulian Gomes de Azevedo and Helio Moreira dos Santos for helping with laboratory rearing of the insects; Dr. Ivan Cruz for providing the egg parasitoid T. remus to establish our colony and the Post-Graduate Zoology Program of the University of Brasília (UnB) for use of their facility.
This work received financial support from the Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improving (CAPES) through a grant to MJH (88881.1317661/2014-01), the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), the Federal District Research Foundation (FAP-DF), and the Brazilian Corporation of Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA). The work at Rothamsted forms part of the Smart Crop Protection (SCP) strategic programme (BBS/OS/CP/000001) funded through Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Bernardi D, Salmeron E, Horikoshi RJ, Bernardi O, Dourado PM, Carvalho RA et al (2015) Cross-resistance between Cry1 proteins in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) may affect the durability of current pyramided Bt maize hybrids in Brazil. PLoS ONE 10:e0140130. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140130 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cave RD (2000) Biology, ecology and use in pest management of Telenomus remus. Biocontrol News Inf (Dordr) 21:21–26Google Scholar
- CONAB (2017) Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. Acompanhamento de safra brasileira: grãos, V4 safra 2016/2017. Décimo segundo levantamento, setembro 2017. Brasília-DF: Conab. http://www.conab.gov.br/OlalaCMS/uploads/arquivos/17_09_12_10_14_36_boletim_graos_setembro_2017.pdf
- Costa LP, Sena MR, Guimarães PEO de, Viana PA, Pacheco CAP (2006) Avaliação de linhagens de milho para resistência à lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). In: 26° Congresso Nacional de Milho e Sorgo, Belo Horizonte, 2006. Available in: https://www.embrapa.br/busca-de-publicacoes/-/publicacao/490124/avaliacao-de-linhagens-de-milho-para-resistencia-a-lagarta-do-cartucho-spodoptera-frugiperda-j-e-smith. Accessed 26 Feb 2018
- Cruz I (1995) A lagarta-do-cartucho na cultura do milho. Circular Técnica/Embrapa Milho e Sorgo 21:45pGoogle Scholar
- Cruz I, Figueiredo MLC, Silva RB (2010) Monitoramento de adultos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) em algumas regiões produtoras de milho no Brasil. Documentos/Embrapa Milho e Sorgo 93:42Google Scholar
- Hilker M, McNeil J (2008) Chemical and behavioural ecology in insect parasitoids: how to behave optimally in complex odorous environment. In: Wajnber E, Bernstein C, van Alphen J (eds) Behavioral ecology of insect parasitoids: from theoretical approaches to field applications, 1st edn. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 92–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leopold EJ (1990) Selective hydroboration of a 1,3,7-triene homogeraniol. Org Synt 64:164–171Google Scholar
- Michereff MFF, Borges M, Aquino MFS, Laumann RA, Gomes ACMM, Blassioli-Moraes MC (2016) The influence of volatile semiochemicals from stink bug eggs and oviposition-damaged plants on the foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi. Bul Entomol Res 1:1–9Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2009) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R foundation for statistical computing.Google Scholar
- Schmidt FGV, Monnerat R, Borges M, Carvalho R (2001) Criação de insetos para avaliação de agentes entomopatogênicos e semioquímicos. Circular Técnica - Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia 21:20Google Scholar
- Toscano LC, Calado Filho GC, Cardoso AM, Maruyama WI, Tomquelski GV (2012) Impact of insecticides on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) and its natural enemies on off-season maize in Cassilândia and Chapadão do Sul, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Arqu Inst Biol 79:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turlings TCJ, Erb M (2018) Tritrophic interactions mediated by herbivore induced plant volatiles: mechanisms, ecological, relevance, and application potential. Annu Rev Entomol 61:431–452Google Scholar
- van Lenteren JC, Bueno VHP (2003) Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America. Bio Control 48:123–139Google Scholar
- von Mérey G, Veyrat N, Mahuku G, Valdez RL, Turlings TCJ, D´Alessandro M (2011) Dispensing synthetic green leaf volatiles in maize fields increases the release sesquiterpene by the plants, but has little effect on the attraction of pest and beneficial insects. Phytochemistry 72:1838–1847CrossRefGoogle Scholar